1.结构方面：Report普通由Table of Contents, Executive Summary, Introduction, Body, Conclusion/Recommendation, Reference六局部组成。
1)Report实践性更重一点儿，少写理论，多接合实际事情状况剖析。对于某些Case Aanalysis的Report来说，必须要针对导师供给的Case来做剖析，而不是自由施展和滥用无关涉的理 论。全部剖析都务必针对Case里的内部实质意义来施行。 2)数值和图表的运用很关紧。假如用到某企业几年内的某一项数值的变动，可以先列数值表格，再用柱状图、馅饼图或曲线图施行直观反映。⒋加意问题： 1) Table of Contents，必须要用Word半自动生成款式。
2）Executive Summary，普通要显露出来“the basicpurpose of this report is to……”这么的微记性语句。普通来说，这局部主要绍介 这篇Report的研究内部实质意义、研究对象、研究目标 、研究意义等等一点赅括性的物品。
3) Introduction，在一篇Report中，Introduction局部相当于是一个Background，而不是赅括Report的内部实质意义。请注意与Essay的差别。Report中的Introduction不赅括文章内部实质意义；不绍介文 章结构（由于目次里已经有结构绍介了）；只绍介Background。
4) Body，总原则“少写理论，多接合实际事情状况剖析”，不要空谈。依据要求具体剖析，用凭证支撑、用事情的真实情况讲话。列出题目、次级题目、有不可缺少时列出下一级题目。每段内部实质意义用简洁的语言 炼取出要领网站关键词，而后行诠释和论述。
5) Conclusion / Recommendation, 依据论文要求具体把握。
6) Reference: Reference 是导师最高看的，所以请一定加意！完全不可以显露出来编造的事情状况，必须要真实。海外对这个问题查得很严。一朝查出有作假或剿袭事情状况,会直接挂科，甚至于开革 学籍。普通来说，Reference里面含有两个局部，一种是in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference，一种是在文章最终显露出来的reference, 也就是reference list。一篇论文一定要里面含有 文中的in-textreference日文末的reference list。论文有明确要求几个Reference的，依据要求来把握；没有明确解释明白个数的，普通依照每千字3-4个来操作。 Reference款式示明方法，普通论文要求中会明确提到。常用的Reference款式有： Harvard referencing system 哈佛文献标记系统 CMS: Chicago Manual of favor (CMS) 芝加哥写文章日文献示明系统： APa method：American Psychological Association. 美国心理学会写文章日文献标记方法 AMA：American Medical Association 美中医学会文献示明系统 MLA:现代文字学会写文章日文献示明系统 CSE: Council of Science Editors (CSE) 科学技术编辑理事会文献标记和写文章方法）
7) 字身子骨儿式：论文有明确要求字身子骨儿式、体积等时，依据要求来操作；论文没有明确要求字体体积等时，普通用用times new roman字体；12（小四）；1.5倍行距；Word默许页边距；标 题文体可加粗；每段落之间空一行；每段直接写，无须空格；在每页的右下角插进去页数。
Report即指学术报告，一听“报告”两字，就知晓肯定风格特别正式。每篇Report都必须包括封面，封面内容要包括作者姓名、导师、时间、学科姓名等相关信息。完成了封面制作，report的第二步就是写目录（contents），我建议同学们在完成论文以前把此部分空着，因为你还没提笔写正文呢，目录就写好了？目录应该包括大小标题，页码等相关信息。第三部分就是Report的正文了，正文分为三个小部分：开头，内容和结尾。每个小部分的标题和副标题要加粗，正文内容建议使用小4葇諀Times New Roman字体。Report正文一定要严谨，既然是学术报告，则不建议同学们使用第1人称来表述。例如i feel，i think，non-publicspeaking等。专业性词汇要多加以解释，标明资料来源。例如报告中提到“只吃肉不吃蔬菜会导致癌症”，那么相关的解释说明是需要的，可以说从哪个白白报纸上看到的，仍然哪个大学的哪位博士提出的等等。开头部分的平常的写法为描画社会形态形态到现在为止的状态，对某话题进行研讨。然后写明该论文中将对哪部分进行解释、举例或分析等。中间部分要端绪明白，大多算学术报告不存在观点一说（例如你同不同意），所以不需要你有严谨的逻辑，只需要把每个学术名词解释清楚即可。最后就是结尾啦，必须不要在结尾部分加入文中从来没有提到过的东西。因为结尾的目的在于总结，而不是让你凑字数。既然是引用别人的观点，那么论文中一定要加上“reference”和“bibliography”。这两个单词是什么意思呢？自然产生的就是你引用资料的来源。因为预科学习中的网络资源比较多，所以我就给大家列出几个网络来源写法。Reference是需要体现在论文当中的，比如开头，正文或结尾部分。
例1：The IELTS requirement is 5.fivefor University First International Foundation Programme (UF, n.d.).
Bibliography 是需求表现出来在文末的，结末往后需求另起一页。每个reference对应一个bibliography，所以假如你的reference是UF雅思入学要 求，bibliography需求对应例1中的UF, n.d.，它的写法为大网站（譬如UF官网）+小题目+援用的文中的题目（斜体或下划线）+网址+你写此bibliography的时间
UF University First, Apply (n.d.),Encheck outRequirement for International Foundation Programme(斜体或下划线), Available at http://www.universityfirst.org/en/entry-requirements/ (Accessed 09/04/2015) 2015年4月9日即为你写此bibliography的时间，n.d.的意思是no date，即为此出处的刊发日子，由于UF官网上没有此时间所以为n.d.。
Assignment 1 – Topic: scanners
This report investigates the present state of scanner technology and views the anticipated future advancements of scanners. a temporary history of the scanner and that its operation is initially outlined. The discussiat then makes a speciality of the benefits and limitations of the five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand-held scanners. The performance of those scanners is examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. it’s concluded that extratechnological advances within the se 4spacesin addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology will continue to decoratethe popularof scanned images. this is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other forms of technology this type ofs cameras.
Table of contents
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 How scanners work 2
3.0 kinds of scanners 2
3.1 Drum scanners 2
3.2 Flatbed scanners 2
3.3 Sheet-fed scanners 2
3.4 Slide scanners 3
3.5 hand-held scanners 3
4.0 Scanner specifications 3
4.1 Resolution 3
4.2 Bit-depth 4
4.3 Dynamic range 4
4.4 Software 4
5.0 Future developments 5
6.0 Conclusion 5
7.0 Reference list 5
Appendix 1 symbolSensor Scanner 8
Appendix 2 regularlyUsed References 9
Appendix 2.1 Scanner Tips 10
Appendix 2.2 Scanners, cameras and Photo CDs 11
Appendix 2.3 the pcTechnology Guide 12
the aim of this report is to survey the present state of scanner technology and to briefly talkpredicted advancements within the field.
By examining a form of newly published journal articles, magazine articles and websites at the subject of scanners this report describes the basickinds of scanners in common use today and views their performance when it comes to 4criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. The report then considers the effect of extratechnological advances within the se 4areas, in addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology at the longer term progressionof scanners.
the basicscanner, initially known as a ‘reading machine’, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device mayscan printed material after which compare everyonealityto a suite of ordinarys in a matrix using, for the basictime, the “most efficientmatch principle” to figure out the unique message (Blatner, Fleishman and decayh 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to shapethe root for the developmentof curhirescanning, sorting and processing machines.
An early developmentat the reading machine wbecause the drum scanner. These scanners used one of those scanning technology known asphotomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still utilized in indusattempt today as a result of the highest of the diversityimages they produce. the developmentof smaller, more cost effective scanners this type ofs desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use the drum scanner because the choice of pcusers increased and pctechnology advanced.
Scanners can now capture images from all types of 2 and 3 dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised pcfiles that may be stored on a troublesome-drive or floppy disk. With assistance from expresssoftware, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the U.S.er. it’s now possible to deploy electronic acquisitidirectly to create a whole layout (including all graphic elements) from the similar computer. this implies manual stripping isn’t anyw not required (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invalucapable ofol for adding graphics and text to documents and feature been readily adopted by both business and domestic users.
2. How scanners work
A scanner is a tool that uses a lightsource to electronically convert a picture into binary knowledge(0s and 1s). This binary knowledgecan then be used to store the scanned symbolon a pc. A scanner recreates a picture by employingsmall electronic components known because the scanner’s ‘eyes’ (Scanner tips 2000). the kind of ‘eyes’ utilized in today’s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic esuremeasure the volume of sunshine reflected from personpoints at the page and translate it to digital signals that correply to the brilliantness of eachpoint (Englander 2000).
To create a file at the pc that represents a color image, the scanner divides the picture right into a grid with msomebody points known aspixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of ‘eyes’, reads over the grid and assymptomsa host to eachpixel according to the basiccolour in that pixel, employinggreen, blue and red. as an example an aqua pixel can be saved as a host to constitutethe professionalpart of blue, green and red which represents the color aqua (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000).
3. kinds of scanners
Tlisted here are five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand-held scanners.
3.1 Drum scanners
Drum scanners were common prior to now, but they’re less common today as a result of advances in scanner technology. because in their expense, these machines are primarily utilized by professionals in industry, where they’re considered vitalas a result of the high-finishquality symbolthey produce and as they use PMT technology that is more complicatedthan charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and get in touch with symbolsensor’s (CISs). Drum scanners are trickyto operateand technicians functionthese scanners by strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler cylinder rotating at topspeeds across the sensor (Sullivan 1996).
3.2 Flatbed scanners
the most well liked scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. this kind of scanner is very versatile as it’s in a position toscan flat objects in addition to small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners functionby strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler window at the same time asscanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is findd to scan transpahireoriginals this type ofs slides or x-rays, and an automated document feeder is out there for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000).
3.3 Sheet-fed scanners
Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent times, particularly for small office or domestic use because the y seem to be affordable, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). maximummodels of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to triumph over the factorof manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. but the real process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner could lead to distortion because the picture to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). an additional limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are uncapable of scan three dimensional objects.
3.4 Slide scanners
this kind of scanner is findd to sam i able totems this type ofs slides that desirecareful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners don’t reflect gentlefrom the picture, but rather pass gentlethrough it. this permits these scanners to sourceadvancedresults without distortions due to mirrorive light. so that you can scan small and detailed items, these scanners have numerous esureat the scanning head which produces a top of the diversityresult. Slide scanners have a tendency to be costlier and not more versatile than flatbed and she or heet-fed scanners because the y’re limited to simplyscanning slides and picture. These scanners, however, are well matched for make use ofrs requiring top of the diversityscans of huge numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000).
hand-held scanners are compact, portable scanners that are onlydragged across a page manually to capture a picture. These scanners are straightforwardto make use of and economical to buy; however, their use is restricted to text of as much as 4inches in diameter that doesn’t require a topresolution. because of this, hand-held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. an additional disgood thing about hand-held scanners is thon the U.S.er should have a mildhand when scanning or the outcomeing symbolshall be distorted (Scanner tips 2000).
4. Scanner specifications
The performance of a scanner can also be examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software.
solutionis a measure of what number of pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. it’s used to explawithin the volume of detail in a picture (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). uppersolutionscanners are sometimescostlier and bring advancedresults because the y have got an idealer capatownto capture detail. Scanners have two kinds of resolutions: optical solutionand that interpolated resolution.
Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of what number of pixels a scanner ca really read. A curhiremodel desktop scanner typically has a solutionof three00 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999). which means this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it maysample 300 dpi in a single direction and three00 dpi within the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. a fewscanners preventthe scanning head more regularlybecause it moves down the page, giving an optical solutionof three00 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more regularlyin a single direction doesn’t improve the results of the scan. the fundamental requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from picturesor other printed originals is an optical solutionof 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical solutionis 1200 dpi.
Interpolated solutionmeasures the choice of pixels a scanner is in a position topredict. A scanner can turn a three00 x 300 dpi sam i able tonto a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking outin-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have gave the impression of if it were scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the real ones scanned. this system is less exactthan optical resolution; but it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images.
4.2 Bit depth
Bit intensityrefers back to the volume of knowledge scanner records for eachpixel when converting a picture to digital form. Scanners differ within the quantityof knowledge they record for eachpixel within a picture. the most undeniabletypes of scanners only record knowledgeassociated withblack and white informationand feature a little intensityof one (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit intensityrequired for scanning photographs and documents is two4-bits, at the same time asslides, negatives or transparencies want a scanner without a less than 30-bits.
Thus for a scanner to sourcea top of the diversityscan with colour, a better bit intensityis needed. generally, curhirescanners have a little intensityof two4, this means that that 8 bits of knowledge can also be collected for the 3 basiccolours utilized in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This topsolutionallows scanners to sourceimages with reference to photographic quality.
4.3 Dynamic range
Dynamic diversityrefers back to the measurement of the form of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and four.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners typicallyhave a dynamic diversityof two.4. a form of this measurement is uncapable of professionalvide top of the diversitycolour scans. A dynamic diversityof two.8 and three.2 is suited for professionalfessional purposes and will also be present in high-finishscanners. a smartupperdynamic diversityof three.0 to three.8 can also be provided by drum scanners.
A scanner, like all form of hardware, requires software. Typically the 2 most typical pieces of sentimentalware supplied with scanners include optical personalityrecognition (OCR) and that symbolediting software. Optical personalityrecognition software translates the tips recorded in a scan, tiny dots, right into a text file which will also be edited. symbolediting software allows the tones and hues of a picture to be manipulated for better printing and display. symbolediting also gives filters to use lighting tricks to scanned images
5. Future developments
the popularof scanned images is continuingly improving as characteristics this type ofs resolution, bit-intensityand dynamic diversityare enhanced and additionaldeveloped. More complicatedsymbolediting and optical personalityrecognition software progressioncould also be leading to advancedquality scans. Future advances are expected to result within the incorporation of specialised scanners into other forms of technology this type ofs the hotly developed camera. This device allows the U.S.er to take pictures of 3-dimensional objects similar to a popularcamera, except s opposed to employingfilm, the things are scanned by the camera in an identical process to the thrillctioning of a flatbed scanner.
The relatively new area of sensor technology within the type of a contact symbolsensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is predicted to decoratethe thrillctionality of scanners and the popularof pictures because it “replaces the cumbera fewoptical reduction technique with a single row of sensors” (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have alin a positionbeen capable of professionalduce a CIS scanner that is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and less dearto fabricate than a popularCCD base device. However, the popularof the sam i able tos inferior to its counterparts. extraprogressionof CIS technology is had to decoratesymbolquality and colour, and so as to adclothethe factorof a limited 300 or 600 dpi.
This report has identified five kinds of scanners currently available. a feware primarily used for professionalfessional purposes this type ofs the drum scanner; others are used more broadly within the workplace and residential this type ofs flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialised purposes have even been identified this type ofs slide and handheld scanners. The performance of those scanners depends at their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent times when it comes to weight, size, worthand speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is expected to sourceextrabenefits to those spacesin addition to to scan quality. The impact of those improvements is predicted to extfinishthe accessibility of scanner technology to a much broader diversityof users and that its suitskillfor a much broader diversityof purposes. when it comes to this, the way forward for scanner technology seems to illustrate to the convergence of diversetechnologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other forms of technologies this type ofs cameras, printers, and photocopiers. this will also be expected to continue with other types of technology at the side of extraimprovements to symbolquality, speed, price, size and weight.
7. Reference list
Anderson, D. the pcGuide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm].
Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real globalscanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.
Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of pchardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272.
Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing datatechnology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145.
Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What’s now …What’s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00
Prepress, scanners, cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00
Scancushyscanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00
Sullivan. M. kinds of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00