标签目录:report写法介绍

以下是与标签 “report写法介绍” 相关联的文章

猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        经历了第一周的开学洗礼,想必小伙伴们都已经大概了解了莫纳什的课程形式,随着学期的深入,同学们也将迎来各种Assignment的洗礼。大家记得随时查看各个科目的Unit Guide,记好每个Assignment的截止日期,不要像小编一样,开学第四周周六点开Unit Guide,发现昨天有个Due,内心毫无波澜,甚至有点想笑。

lazy loading - 猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        提到Assignment,就不得不提ESSAY和REPORT,它们可以说是90%Assignment的形式,那么关于ESSAY 和REPORT,大家又了解多少呢。今天Meeloun小编就来为大家讲解如何写出一篇合格的Essay和Report

lazy loading - 猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        1.ESSAY的格式讲解
        翻开莫纳什官方Q Manual, 大家会发现上面这样一张表
        由表中可以清晰看到,ESSAY主体分为三部分:Introduction, body, conclusion.
        Introduction为开头介绍部分,主要目的为介绍本篇ESSAY话题,开篇立意,提供背景信息,基本原理,本篇的大纲,简单来说就是告诉读者你这篇文章到底要讲什么,你的观点是什么。
        Body是一篇ESSAY的核心部分,我们80%的篇幅都在这部分内容。你需要在这部分具体陈述你的观点,你的论据,包括你的具体例子去支撑你的观点。一般来说根据字数去分段,
        正常来讲1000-1500字ESSAY三段即可。一个段落表示一个你的具体观点+论据+例子。最后可以有一个一句话的对于本段的评论和总结。
        Conclusion是一篇ESSAY的结尾部分,主要目的就是总结全篇内容,把你的观点用一个总结式的语句写出来,注意不要重复用Body的句子。另外可以在结尾写一些你的研究的其他内容,如你的研究的意义(importance of your findings),不足之处(limitation of your research),对未来建议(suggested future directions)等等。
        最后附上Reference即可,关于Reference格式我们最后会说。

        2.REPORT的格式讲解
        Report格式其实和Essay很像,所以很多同学容易搞混。Report分为四个主要部分,除去ESSAY有的Introduction, body和 Conclusion以外,Report多了一个写在开头的Executive Summary。
        Executive Summary是什么呢,其实Executive Summary可以看错一个对全篇Report的概述,写它的目的主要是为那些没有时间阅读全部Report的人提供的,所以它不宜过长,一般不超过一页,主要内容为讲述本篇Report的目的,背景,信息资源,主要发现以及总结和建议。
        Introduction 和Conclusion基本和Essay差不多,不作过多介绍。我们接下来主要来看一篇Report的核心部分,也就是Body。Body和Essay最大的不同点就是没有你自己的观点,也就是说,你要写你发现了什么,用的什么方法,数据是多少,结论是什么,但是你不能说我认为怎么怎么样。一篇合格的Report需要的是客观而不是主观论据。所以我们一般都用第三人称,尽量避免第一人称。

        除此之外,在开篇加上目录,在结尾加上Reference ,一篇Report就诞生啦。

        3.REFERENCE格式
        Reference是Essay和Report必须要有的一个很重要的部分,一般来说,大家的Assignment都会有Reference的个数要求,不同的文章,不同的字数,要求数目也不同,字数越多,要求数目越多。
        关于格式,Reference有很多种格式,但莫纳什一般要求使用APA Style的格式。这里拿一本书作为例子:Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead. 大家可以从中看出基本格式为作者,年份(出版的年份),书名还有出版社的地址。拿一篇期刊举例: Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146. 基本格式为作者,年份,文章名,期刊名,以及具体页数。如果大家是在网上找到的资料,那么要在最后加上在哪里截取的,如:Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http://journals.f+f.org/spectre/vblofeld-0046g.html。这里对APA只作一个简单介绍,大家的Q MANUAL当中都有具体不同的格式,在写Reference之前一定要查清楚,保证格式不要错,这样就会写出一篇合格的Essay 和Report。

        对于essay和report写作还有相关疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。

谈谈留学生论文的Proposal怎么写

        相信大部分留学生都知道,在毕业论文正式写作之前大家都要先写一篇Proposal,Proposal通过了才能进行接下来的论文写作,可见写好Proposal是非常有必要的。今天Meeloun小编就教大家Proposal的写作方法和步骤,希望对同学们有所帮助。

lazy loading - 谈谈留学生论文的Proposal怎么写
        第一步当然是要和导师保持联系,以方便双方的沟通。你还可以找导师咨询几个研究方向,也可以自己搜索文献寻找线索。无论是上述哪一种情况,导师的意见,都将决定着选题的命运。只要双方合拍,选题就有戏。
        接下来你的任务量就开始大了:你需要在备选的选题方向上广泛阅读,拓展知识广度;然后缩小范围,在感兴趣的方面深入阅读,增加知识深度。值得注意的是,阅读资料最好选择近几年的论文,不推荐阅读专著。毕竟时间有限。
        后面自然是开始写proposal了,不过这方面的篇幅不限,自己能看懂就行。研究什么、每段准备写什么、准备从哪里获取数据、用哪些研究方法……这就是你的论文框架。不过注意控制在能力范围之内,量力而行。
        后面同学们就需要注意了解论证这个题目没有人研究过,而且没有人正在研究。如果有人正在研究了,研究他的下一步工作(future work),如果找不到这样的方向,那么则需要重新考虑选题方向了。
        初稿完成后,当然是开始进行修改。可以适当的缩减篇幅,修改次数随意,顺便找领域里面的大牛帮忙看看,提提意见;找外行看,如果他们能看懂60%以上,写的就是成功的。
        同学们可以尽量把要研究的内容、目标写的够清楚,并且能在有限篇幅内说清楚,还能把研究的现状说清楚,并说明这个研究以前和现在都没人在做;能把研究的方法说清楚;能把研究的value说清楚。那么可以说,这份proposal是成功的。
        Proposal研究计划是极为重要的,通常会占论文总成绩的10%,即使有些导师并不把Proposal占总成绩的分数,但也对毕业论文有着纲领性的作用。一句话,你的Proposal不通过,后续就不要想进行,你的Proposal写好了,后续的论文就好搞定的多。

美国留学安全须知
        以上就是Meeloun小编分享的关于Proposal写作方法的介绍,希望同学们能够牢牢掌握,顺利通过Proposal的写作。需要report代写的同学们可以联系我们的客服哦!美伦现旗下写手超过400名,海龟硕博占据50%以上,更多写手资源正在火热招募中。美伦以质量为根本,诚信服务,严格执行双重审稿与检测,保证每一篇稿子都是精心原创并符合学科的需求,保障了留学生论文作业的通过率。

美国留学生report怎么写

IReport Introduction怎么写

Introduction主要包括以下几个方面的内容:
Report的purpose和background;
Report涉及到的scope\methods\issues等;
Report的limitations和definitions;
Report写作过程中需要考虑的问题:调查是否有必要。当自己写作过程中遇到一些数据上的问题,可能需要进行调查。当问题涉及的方面是非常广泛的,你需要缩小到一个范围内进行调查研究。

美国留学生report怎么写
Report Summary怎么写

Exceutive Summary包含的内容:
对整个Report提供一个简短的和综合性的summary;
对整个Report提供一些findings和conclusions;
为读者提供尽可能多的细节内容,使读者能够对main facts和critical findings有一个清楚的理解和认识。一般是用Past tense写,因为Past tense表示已发生的事情。尽管Summay出现在Report的开头,但是这部分最好能够在整个Report完成后再写,这样你才会有时间对整篇Report进行反思。
Report Recommendations怎么写

在完成Report的过程中,recommendations应该包括以下几个方面:
应采取什么actions,谁应该参与实施;
可以做些什么来实现更好的\更全面的结果;
在实施recommendations的时候,可能遇到什么样的costs和risks;
怎么做才能成为best solution;
要获得进一步的内容要做哪些新的研究;
Recommendations是基于conclusions,并提供possible solutions,以最快地解决Report中出现的问题。
Report body部分怎么写

Report Body部分并没有特定的公式,你需要做的就是彻底调查,研究和分析当前形势因素的影响。在正文中,经常会有一个组成部分:Literature Review,此外你需解释研究方法和原因。美伦meeloun论文代写平台认为,一些methods的使用很大程度上取决于需要调查方式,Research的结果和发现需要进行分析和总结,并以逻辑合理的的方式展现出来,这样可以清楚地展现出每段中提供的信息。

好了,关于report怎么写,以及report写作要求介绍到这,应该有一定了解了,其实对于report,总体上的几个部分相差无异,只是对于report来说更倾向与将研究内容,方法以及结果展示出来,让读者了解和清楚,如果对于report还有什么疑问,可以咨询美伦meeloun论文代写平台,或者有论文代写需求,也可以呼叫我们,我们一定为你写出最好的英文论文。

management report写法详细介绍

一份好的management report不论是在学校或是在职场对你都是有帮助的,所以大家还是看看本文是怎么介绍management report的写法。小编也希望这篇文章对大家有所帮助!

management report写法详细介绍
从业人员必须能够:
1。确定一个合适的项目,他们的管理报告,在其可行性和相关性的组织,以及在人员和发展的关键问题。
2。计划和设计一个项目,演示了战略问题的意识,并有可能作出贡献的组织绩效的改善。
三.表现出令人满意的知识,现有的文献,当代的人员和发展的做法,以及在主题区域选择的管理报告的政策问题。
4。访问和解释数据从主要和次要来源在编译材料为他们的管理报告。
1。识别他们的管理报告一个合适的项目,在其可行性和组织的相关条款,以及在人才和发展的关键问题。
2。计划和设计方案,论证了战略问题意识和改善组织绩效做出贡献的潜力。
3。现有的文献表明一个满意的知识,现代人才的做法,开发和选择的管理报告主题区域政策问题。
4。访问和解释从小学和中学在他们的管理报告资料编制的数据源。
5。制定适当和正确的技术应用,如访谈、问卷调查、参与观察和文献分析等,为他们的管理报告收集数据。
6。分析已收集到的数据,为他们的管理报告,通过使用定性和定量的方法为适当。
7。从他们的管理报告中得出切合实际的结论和适当的结论。
8。以清晰、合乎逻辑、系统的方式,以说服关键决策者的优点,提出他们的管理报告。
9。准备一个计划,在合理的时间内实施他们的管理报告所提出的建议。
10。对他们的管理报告进行批判性的审查,并确定他们的项目可以更有效地进行的方式。
附录:
评分标准
该模块的总体标记标准为:
这个模块将通过提交一篇论文的20000个字评估。本论文将对以下标准进行评估:
本论文充分地定义了一个适当的和同意的问题或领域的调查。
该问题进行了检查,通过一个精心设计的和铰接式的方法。
完成了论文的执行工作。
的数据收集是适当的,并对数据进行了分析和评估,以一个适当的水平。
调查结果与主题领域的更广泛的理论问题有关。
学生们可以充分地思考和欣赏他们自己工作的长处和短处。
那个学生坚持大学的研究道德准则。
附录指南:硕士学位论文评分标准指南
分类等级关联性知识分析论证与结构创意呈现
区别
≥70%直接相关的题目:解决标题的含义和细微差别。采用适当的研究技术,方法和范式。结论包含独创性。广泛的知识明显,通过适当的应用,通过非常好的研究获得的知识。一个明确的、合乎逻辑的结果的质量的研究。研究原创,以研究问题为中心。连贯和逻辑结构的高度创造性的使用的研究,在理论模型(S)和所提出的论点。高度原创,表现出高水平的独立思想。研究、方法论和思想的独创性。优秀的书面论文具有广泛的参考书目。清明和机智的风格传达了一个高层次的权威的主题。
优点
60 – 69%直接相关的标题:能够解决的影响,假设和细微之处。有效运用良好的知识,并深入了解相关研究。一个很好的使用分析的证据,论据和研究进行,导致明确和清晰的结果,包含原始元素。连贯的逻辑结构,创造性地使用一个合适的论点和研究模式。独特的作品,包含了独创性的元素,在整个具有良好的独立思想水平明显。写的非常好的一个相当广泛的相关书目输送的清醒和在学科权威高水平论文。
通过
50至59%个直接相关的标题。充分了解相关材料,明确其重要性的应用。良好的分析基础上良好的研究。可能有一定程度的描述和分析的目的,可能并不总是清楚地保持一贯的连贯和逻辑的尝试,使一个连贯的论点。结构化使用适当的参数和研究模式。偶尔在这个层面上可能是一个缺乏连贯性和适当的研究。可能包含一些独特的或独立的思维与独创性的元素。工作将是健全的,可能有一些个人意见。具有可接受的参考书目的可阅读风格的合理写的论文。
失败
关于研究和完全缺乏原创性的50%大问题。只显示了一个有限的研究范围和方法的基本理解。在很大程度上是描述性的,几乎没有分析能力的证据。基本思路明显,但不支持独立的研究缺乏清晰度和连贯性。在很大程度上衍生,没有独创性的元素在证据。写得不好,表达不足,缺乏清晰,在书目中的不足。

management report写法详细介绍

如果大家有论文作业没写而自己又没时间时候不妨找我们美伦教育,成立七年已经累计为超过20000名留学生们代写作业,我们之所以能够发展到今天,都是因为在留学生大军中有这良好的口碑,绝对值得您信赖。如果有作业代写要求赶紧联系我们的网站在线客服吧,美伦一定会为你带来最好essay代写、report服务的。

report什么意思|report格式介绍

刚入学的留学生刚刚接触report这个新的作业方式肯定都不知道怎么写才好,国内的老师日常在教育课上也从来教过我们report写法。众多同学首次听见report写文章就绝对还搞不清楚状况。大家有福了这处我们给很多同学做个开始阶段的绍介:report就是英文报告陈述,学会计、金融、理工类的学生可能会经常碰到。那么report该怎么写呢?
report什么意思|report格式怎么写下面为大家介绍一下report格式以及一些常用知识。
1.结构方面:Report普通由Table of Contents, Executive Summary, Introduction, Body, Conclusion/Recommendation, Reference六局部组成。

2.语言方面:Report中,假如标题是如果你是某企业CEO或其它某个角色,可以运用第1称呼;假如没有这么主人公的如果,仍然不可以用第1,2称呼。请注意这点和Essay的差别。

3.内部实质意义方面:

1)Report实践性更重一点儿,少写理论,多接合实际事情状况剖析。对于某些Case Aanalysis的Report来说,必须要针对导师供给的Case来做剖析,而不是自由施展和滥用无关涉的理 论。全部剖析都务必针对Case里的内部实质意义来施行。 2)数值和图表的运用很关紧。假如用到某企业几年内的某一项数值的变动,可以先列数值表格,再用柱状图、馅饼图或曲线图施行直观反映。⒋加意问题: 1) Table of Contents,必须要用Word半自动生成款式。

2)Executive Summary,普通要显露出来“the basicpurpose of this report is to……”这么的微记性语句。普通来说,这局部主要绍介 这篇Report的研究内部实质意义、研究对象、研究目标 、研究意义等等一点赅括性的物品。

3) Introduction,在一篇Report中,Introduction局部相当于是一个Background,而不是赅括Report的内部实质意义。请注意与Essay的差别。Report中的Introduction不赅括文章内部实质意义;不绍介文 章结构(由于目次里已经有结构绍介了);只绍介Background。

4) Body,总原则“少写理论,多接合实际事情状况剖析”,不要空谈。依据要求具体剖析,用凭证支撑、用事情的真实情况讲话。列出题目、次级题目、有不可缺少时列出下一级题目。每段内部实质意义用简洁的语言 炼取出要领网站关键词,而后行诠释和论述。

5) Conclusion / Recommendation, 依据论文要求具体把握。

6) Reference: Reference 是导师最高看的,所以请一定加意!完全不可以显露出来编造的事情状况,必须要真实。海外对这个问题查得很严。一朝查出有作假或剿袭事情状况,会直接挂科,甚至于开革 学籍。普通来说,Reference里面含有两个局部,一种是in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference,一种是在文章最终显露出来的reference, 也就是reference list。一篇论文一定要里面含有 文中的in-textreference日文末的reference list。论文有明确要求几个Reference的,依据要求来把握;没有明确解释明白个数的,普通依照每千字3-4个来操作。 Reference款式示明方法,普通论文要求中会明确提到。常用的Reference款式有: Harvard referencing system 哈佛文献标记系统 CMS: Chicago Manual of favor (CMS) 芝加哥写文章日文献示明系统: APa method:American Psychological Association. 美国心理学会写文章日文献标记方法 AMA:American Medical Association 美中医学会文献示明系统 MLA:现代文字学会写文章日文献示明系统 CSE: Council of Science Editors (CSE) 科学技术编辑理事会文献标记和写文章方法)

7) 字身子骨儿式:论文有明确要求字身子骨儿式、体积等时,依据要求来操作;论文没有明确要求字体体积等时,普通用用times new roman字体;12(小四);1.5倍行距;Word默许页边距;标 题文体可加粗;每段落之间空一行;每段直接写,无须空格;在每页的右下角插进去页数。

Report即指学术报告,一听“报告”两字,就知晓肯定风格特别正式。每篇Report都必须包括封面,封面内容要包括作者姓名、导师、时间、学科姓名等相关信息。完成了封面制作,report的第二步就是写目录(contents),我建议同学们在完成论文以前把此部分空着,因为你还没提笔写正文呢,目录就写好了?目录应该包括大小标题,页码等相关信息。第三部分就是Report的正文了,正文分为三个小部分:开头,内容和结尾。每个小部分的标题和副标题要加粗,正文内容建议使用小4葇諀Times New Roman字体。Report正文一定要严谨,既然是学术报告,则不建议同学们使用第1人称来表述。例如i feel,i think,non-publicspeaking等。专业性词汇要多加以解释,标明资料来源。例如报告中提到“只吃肉不吃蔬菜会导致癌症”,那么相关的解释说明是需要的,可以说从哪个白白报纸上看到的,仍然哪个大学的哪位博士提出的等等。开头部分的平常的写法为描画社会形态形态到现在为止的状态,对某话题进行研讨。然后写明该论文中将对哪部分进行解释、举例或分析等。中间部分要端绪明白,大多算学术报告不存在观点一说(例如你同不同意),所以不需要你有严谨的逻辑,只需要把每个学术名词解释清楚即可。最后就是结尾啦,必须不要在结尾部分加入文中从来没有提到过的东西。因为结尾的目的在于总结,而不是让你凑字数。既然是引用别人的观点,那么论文中一定要加上“reference”和“bibliography”。这两个单词是什么意思呢?自然产生的就是你引用资料的来源。因为预科学习中的网络资源比较多,所以我就给大家列出几个网络来源写法。Reference是需要体现在论文当中的,比如开头,正文或结尾部分。

譬如,你从谷歌中搜索出UF官网,从其中找到的资料出处(譬如UF公立预科入学雅思要求),那你在文中的reference则为:(UF,时间)。由于UF官网并没有此资料的时间,所以只消写“n.d.”即可。

例1:The IELTS requirement is 5.fivefor University First International Foundation Programme (UF, n.d.).

所以(UF n.d.)即为雅思要求的“网络出处”,称为文中的“reference”。

Bibliography 是需求表现出来在文末的,结末往后需求另起一页。每个reference对应一个bibliography,所以假如你的reference是UF雅思入学要 求,bibliography需求对应例1中的UF, n.d.,它的写法为大网站(譬如UF官网)+小题目+援用的文中的题目(斜体或下划线)+网址+你写此bibliography的时间

例2:Bibliography:

UF University First, Apply (n.d.),Encheck outRequirement for International Foundation Programme(斜体或下划线), Available at http://www.universityfirst.org/en/entry-requirements/ (Accessed 09/04/2015) 2015年4月9日即为你写此bibliography的时间,n.d.的意思是no date,即为此出处的刊发日子,由于UF官网上没有此时间所以为n.d.。

全部的reference和bibliography务必是英文网站,不行用百度,搜狐等内部实质意义,外国人可看不懂汉字。

report什么意思|report格式怎么写

pcsystems pcsystems
Assignment 1 – Topic: scanners

Date:
Student name:
Student number:
Tutor name:
academictime:

Abstract

This report investigates the present state of scanner technology and views the anticipated future advancements of scanners. a temporary history of the scanner and that its operation is initially outlined. The discussiat then makes a speciality of the benefits and limitations of the five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand-held scanners. The performance of those scanners is examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. it’s concluded that extratechnological advances within the se 4spacesin addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology will continue to decoratethe popularof scanned images. this is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other forms of technology this type ofs cameras.
Table of contents
Abstract     i
1.0     Introduction     1
2.0     How scanners work     2
3.0     kinds of scanners     2
3.1     Drum scanners     2
3.2     Flatbed scanners     2
3.3     Sheet-fed scanners     2
3.4     Slide scanners     3
3.5     hand-held scanners     3
4.0     Scanner specifications     3
4.1     Resolution     3
4.2     Bit-depth     4
4.3     Dynamic range     4
4.4     Software     4
5.0     Future developments     5
6.0     Conclusion     5
7.0     Reference list     5
Appendicies     6
Appendix 1 symbolSensor Scanner     8
Appendix 2 regularlyUsed References     9
Appendix 2.1 Scanner Tips     10
Appendix 2.2 Scanners, cameras and Photo CDs     11
Appendix 2.3 the pcTechnology Guide     12
1. Introduction

the aim of this report is to survey the present state of scanner technology and to briefly talkpredicted advancements within the field.

By examining a form of newly published journal articles, magazine articles and websites at the subject of scanners this report describes the basickinds of scanners in common use today and views their performance when it comes to 4criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. The report then considers the effect of extratechnological advances within the se 4areas, in addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology at the longer term progressionof scanners.

the basicscanner, initially known as a ‘reading machine’, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device mayscan printed material after which compare everyonealityto a suite of ordinarys in a matrix using, for the basictime, the “most efficientmatch principle” to figure out the unique message (Blatner, Fleishman and decayh 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to shapethe root for the developmentof curhirescanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early developmentat the reading machine wbecause the drum scanner. These scanners used one of those scanning technology known asphotomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still utilized in indusattempt today as a result of the highest of the diversityimages they produce. the developmentof smaller, more cost effective scanners this type ofs desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use the drum scanner because the choice of pcusers increased and pctechnology advanced.

Scanners can now capture images from all types of 2 and 3 dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised pcfiles that may be stored on a troublesome-drive or floppy disk. With assistance from expresssoftware, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the U.S.er. it’s now possible to deploy electronic acquisitidirectly to create a whole layout (including all graphic elements) from the similar computer. this implies manual stripping isn’t anyw not required (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invalucapable ofol for adding graphics and text to documents and feature been readily adopted by both business and domestic users.
2. How scanners work

A scanner is a tool that uses a lightsource to electronically convert a picture into binary knowledge(0s and 1s). This binary knowledgecan then be used to store the scanned symbolon a pc. A scanner recreates a picture by employingsmall electronic components known because the scanner’s ‘eyes’ (Scanner tips 2000). the kind of ‘eyes’ utilized in today’s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic esuremeasure the volume of sunshine reflected from personpoints at the page and translate it to digital signals that correply to the brilliantness of eachpoint (Englander 2000).

To create a file at the pc that represents a color image, the scanner divides the picture right into a grid with msomebody points known aspixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of ‘eyes’, reads over the grid and assymptomsa host to eachpixel according to the basiccolour in that pixel, employinggreen, blue and red. as an example an aqua pixel can be saved as a host to constitutethe professionalpart of blue, green and red which represents the color aqua (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000).
3. kinds of scanners

Tlisted here are five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand-held scanners.
3.1 Drum scanners

Drum scanners were common prior to now, but they’re less common today as a result of advances in scanner technology. because in their expense, these machines are primarily utilized by professionals in industry, where they’re considered vitalas a result of the high-finishquality symbolthey produce and as they use PMT technology that is more complicatedthan charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and get in touch with symbolsensor’s (CISs). Drum scanners are trickyto operateand technicians functionthese scanners by strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler cylinder rotating at topspeeds across the sensor (Sullivan 1996).
3.2 Flatbed scanners

the most well liked scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. this kind of scanner is very versatile as it’s in a position toscan flat objects in addition to small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners functionby strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler window at the same time asscanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is findd to scan transpahireoriginals this type ofs slides or x-rays, and an automated document feeder is out there for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000).
3.3 Sheet-fed scanners

Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent times, particularly for small office or domestic use because the y seem to be affordable, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). maximummodels of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to triumph over the factorof manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. but the real process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner could lead to distortion because the picture to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). an additional limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are uncapable of scan three dimensional objects.
3.4 Slide scanners

this kind of scanner is findd to sam i able totems this type ofs slides that desirecareful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners don’t reflect gentlefrom the picture, but rather pass gentlethrough it. this permits these scanners to sourceadvancedresults without distortions due to mirrorive light. so that you can scan small and detailed items, these scanners have numerous esureat the scanning head which produces a top of the diversityresult. Slide scanners have a tendency to be costlier and not more versatile than flatbed and she or heet-fed scanners because the y’re limited to simplyscanning slides and picture. These scanners, however, are well matched for make use ofrs requiring top of the diversityscans of huge numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000).
3.fivehand-held scanners

hand-held scanners are compact, portable scanners that are onlydragged across a page manually to capture a picture. These scanners are straightforwardto make use of and economical to buy; however, their use is restricted to text of as much as 4inches in diameter that doesn’t require a topresolution. because of this, hand-held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. an additional disgood thing about hand-held scanners is thon the U.S.er should have a mildhand when scanning or the outcomeing symbolshall be distorted (Scanner tips 2000).
4. Scanner specifications

The performance of a scanner can also be examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software.
4.1 Resolution

solutionis a measure of what number of pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. it’s used to explawithin the volume of detail in a picture (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). uppersolutionscanners are sometimescostlier and bring advancedresults because the y have got an idealer capatownto capture detail. Scanners have two kinds of resolutions: optical solutionand that interpolated resolution.

Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of what number of pixels a scanner ca really read. A curhiremodel desktop scanner typically has a solutionof three00 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999). which means this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it maysample 300 dpi in a single direction and three00 dpi within the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. a fewscanners preventthe scanning head more regularlybecause it moves down the page, giving an optical solutionof three00 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more regularlyin a single direction doesn’t improve the results of the scan. the fundamental requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from picturesor other printed originals is an optical solutionof 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical solutionis 1200 dpi.

Interpolated solutionmeasures the choice of pixels a scanner is in a position topredict. A scanner can turn a three00 x 300 dpi sam i able tonto a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking outin-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have gave the impression of if it were scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the real ones scanned. this system is less exactthan optical resolution; but it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images.
4.2 Bit depth

Bit intensityrefers back to the volume of knowledge scanner records for eachpixel when converting a picture to digital form. Scanners differ within the quantityof knowledge they record for eachpixel within a picture. the most undeniabletypes of scanners only record knowledgeassociated withblack and white informationand feature a little intensityof one (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit intensityrequired for scanning photographs and documents is two4-bits, at the same time asslides, negatives or transparencies want a scanner without a less than 30-bits.

Thus for a scanner to sourcea top of the diversityscan with colour, a better bit intensityis needed. generally, curhirescanners have a little intensityof two4, this means that that 8 bits of knowledge can also be collected for the 3 basiccolours utilized in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This topsolutionallows scanners to sourceimages with reference to photographic quality.
4.3 Dynamic range

Dynamic diversityrefers back to the measurement of the form of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and four.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners typicallyhave a dynamic diversityof two.4. a form of this measurement is uncapable of professionalvide top of the diversitycolour scans. A dynamic diversityof two.8 and three.2 is suited for professionalfessional purposes and will also be present in high-finishscanners. a smartupperdynamic diversityof three.0 to three.8 can also be provided by drum scanners.
4.4 Software

A scanner, like all form of hardware, requires software. Typically the 2 most typical pieces of sentimentalware supplied with scanners include optical personalityrecognition (OCR) and that symbolediting software. Optical personalityrecognition software translates the tips recorded in a scan, tiny dots, right into a text file which will also be edited. symbolediting software allows the tones and hues of a picture to be manipulated for better printing and display. symbolediting also gives filters to use lighting tricks to scanned images
5. Future developments

the popularof scanned images is continuingly improving as characteristics this type ofs resolution, bit-intensityand dynamic diversityare enhanced and additionaldeveloped. More complicatedsymbolediting and optical personalityrecognition software progressioncould also be leading to advancedquality scans. Future advances are expected to result within the incorporation of specialised scanners into other forms of technology this type ofs the hotly developed camera. This device allows the U.S.er to take pictures of 3-dimensional objects similar to a popularcamera, except s opposed to employingfilm, the things are scanned by the camera in an identical process to the thrillctioning of a flatbed scanner.

The relatively new area of sensor technology within the type of a contact symbolsensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is predicted to decoratethe thrillctionality of scanners and the popularof pictures because it “replaces the cumbera fewoptical reduction technique with a single row of sensors” (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have alin a positionbeen capable of professionalduce a CIS scanner that is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and less dearto fabricate than a popularCCD base device. However, the popularof the sam i able tos inferior to its counterparts. extraprogressionof CIS technology is had to decoratesymbolquality and colour, and so as to adclothethe factorof a limited 300 or 600 dpi.
6. Conclusion

This report has identified five kinds of scanners currently available. a feware primarily used for professionalfessional purposes this type ofs the drum scanner; others are used more broadly within the workplace and residential this type ofs flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialised purposes have even been identified this type ofs slide and handheld scanners. The performance of those scanners depends at their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent times when it comes to weight, size, worthand speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is expected to sourceextrabenefits to those spacesin addition to to scan quality. The impact of those improvements is predicted to extfinishthe accessibility of scanner technology to a much broader diversityof users and that its suitskillfor a much broader diversityof purposes. when it comes to this, the way forward for scanner technology seems to illustrate to the convergence of diversetechnologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other forms of technologies this type ofs cameras, printers, and photocopiers. this will also be expected to continue with other types of technology at the side of extraimprovements to symbolquality, speed, price, size and weight.

7. Reference list
Anderson, D. the pcGuide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm].
Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real globalscanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.
Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of pchardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272.
Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing datatechnology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145.
Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What’s now …What’s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00
Prepress, scanners, cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00
Scancushyscanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00
Sullivan. M. kinds of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00

report什么意思|report格式怎么写

如果大家有论文作业没写而自己又没时间时候不妨找我们美伦教育,成立七年已经累计为超过20000名留学生们代写作业,我们之所以能够发展到今天,都是因为在留学生大军中有这良好的口碑,绝对值得您信赖。如果有作业代写要求赶紧联系我们的网站在线客服吧。