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Essay写作中的Reference如何解决?

        听说又要写essay了,看到reference和bilibili(呸呸呸,bibliography)的同学们有没有很慌?小编历尽千辛万苦,收集了国外文献的不同格式写法。本文拟重点介绍OSCOLA、Harvard和MLA格式。它们到底是什么,在essay写作中又藏在哪里呢,快和Meeloun小编一起来看看吧。

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Essay reference格式

 

       一、Referencing为什么重要?

        指所有一切直接或间接引用的有关联的信息,可以是网页,书籍,报刊,影视资料等等。

        牛津大学曰:“Properly referencing your sources can not only help you to avoid breaking the University’s strict plagiarism rules,but can also help you to strengthen the arguments you make in your work.”

        “正确引用你的来源,不仅可以帮助你避免打破大学的严格抄袭规则,还可以帮助你强化文章的论述。”

        格拉斯哥大学曰:“Referencing is an important part of academic writing.It allows you to acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps you to avoid plagiarism.”

        “引用是学术写作的一个重要组成部分。如果你承认别人的想法或文字,它可以让你在文章中使用他们,并帮助您避免抄袭。”

        如果你有过留学经历,那就应该知道外国学者对是否plagiarism(抄袭)有多看重。而你若没有引用,或者引用不当,或许就会因为referencing问题被误认为是plagiarism(抄袭),从而导致挂科、影响毕业。

        此外,除了thesis,像presentation,report等日常assignments都可能需要提供长长的Reference。这既体现了学生的准备是否充分以及检索、调查和研究的能力,又是对他人知识产权的尊重,还可以体现作者的思路,让读者能顺藤摸瓜对某一领域相关知识进行学习。

       二、Reference有哪些类型?

        参考文献有一定格式要求,国外大学常见的格式有8类。

        1.APA(American Psychological Association)通常在社会科学中使用。

        2.Chicago经常被academic publishers使用。

        3.Harvard是最经常使用的referencing类别,在学术刊物上广泛使用。

        4.IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)经常在Engineering and Technology中使用。

        5.MLA(Modern Language Association)经常在languages and literature的学术写作中使用。

        6.MRHA(Modern Humanities Research Association)常在人文学的学术论文写作中使用。

        7.OSCOLA(Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities)常在法律资料中使用。

        8.Vancouver使用数字系统引用的风格-经常在医学写作中使用

        根据学科专业和文章要求的不同,使用的referencing conventions也可能不同。所以,在写作前,一定要留意该门课professor、lecturer和tutor要求使用的referencing类别。

       (1)OSCOLA

        一般而言,法律类引用格式是Bluebook(美),OSCOLA(英)。

        1.书籍Book Reference[a written work or opus]

        You’ll need to provide information about the book’s author,the title of the book,year of publication,publisher,and book edition.

        Example:M Elliot,Administrative Law(1st,Maxwell,Oxford 2005)15

        2.书籍章节Book Chapter Reference[a chapter from written works or collections]

        You’ll need to provide information about the book’s author,the title of the book,year of publication,publisher,and book edition.

        Example:M Elliot,’Concepts and Understanding’in Westlaw(eds),Administrative Law(1st,Maxwell,Oxford 2005).

        3.期刊Journal Reference[Scholarly published and peer-reviewed literature contained in highly specialized academic research periodicals]

        You’ll need to supply the name of the author,year of publication,journalname,and page numbers.

        Example:M Elliot,’Administrative Law'[2005]AL 2,45

        4.网站Website Reference[a collection of online pages with information on a given topic considered authoritative in academic literature]

        You’ll need to provide the name of the author,year of publication,and publisher of the information.

        Example:Maxwell,’Administrative Law'(Legallaw.com 2005)

        5.案例Case Reference

        Example:Maxwell v House[2005]1 A.B.C.245(QB)

        6.法律法规Legislation Reference

        Example:Human Rights Act 1998 s 15(1)(b)

        7.欧盟立法EU Legislation Reference

        Example:Council Regulation(EC)961/2010 on restrictive measures against Iran and repealing regulation[2003]OJ L423/1

       (2)Harvard Reference

        除此之外,哈佛参考文献注释体系也是较为常用的。

        哈佛文献引用体系(Harvard Referencing System),也叫“作者-日期法”(Author-date method),起源于美国,20世纪50、60年代开始流行,在物理学和自然科学研究领域使用最多,近年来社会科学中也开始流行。根据哈佛体系,每一个引文,无论直接还是间接,都应分别在两处注明:在文中引用(citation)处注明&在文章最后的参考书目(bibliography)处注明。

        以下是Harvard Referencing的教程

        1.In-text citations文中的引用

        include the name of the author/s,the year of publication within the text and the pages(if used a direct quotation)

        在文章正文里,会出现作者、年份、页码等引用的信息。

        栗子:

        There was further evidence to support researchers’views on genetic abnormalities in crops(White,2001,cited in Murray,2007,p.82).

        Scholtz(1990,p.564)has argued that There was further evidence to support researchers’views on genetic abnormalities in crops.

        There was further evidence to support researchers’views on genetic abnormalities in crops outlined by Smith(2009a,p.45)and developed further in his report(2009b,p.23).

        2.Bibliography/References文后的文献

        栗子:

        Caillard,V.(1891)The Songs of Innocence of William Blake set to music.London:Novello,Ewer and Co.

        Kahlo,F.(1931)Frieda and Diego Rivera[Oil on canvas].San Francisco Museum of Modern Art,San Francisco.

        Moody,J.(2000)Illegitimate theatre in London,1770-1840.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

        Refereces或者Bibliography,列出所有引用的或者对本文写作有影响的文献信息。

       (3)MLA

        MLA不仅仅指引用格式,也包括了学术essay写作的其他格式要求。在MLA格式中,引用主要分为括号形式备注形式的文内引用和文末单列的引用页两种。

        何时引用

        1.当你解释(paraphrase),总结(summarize),提到(mention)某人的想法时,cite it!

        2.当你引用某人的原句时,注意不仅要标注引用,还要用引号标出具体哪些部分是引用的。

        3.当你引用数据、图片、表格、视频、动画等时,cite it!

        4.当你提到一些并非常识的内容时,cite it!

        注:常识是相对于潜在的读者而言的,一般来说对于普罗大众的内容所需要标注的引用比面对专家学者更多。同时,常识也意味着读者可以很快的查到的信息,不仅是在网上随处可见的,更是毫无争议的。因此当你不确定是否要标注引用时,cite it!

        文内引用格式:

        例:Romantic poetry is characterized by the”spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”(Wordsworth 263).或(Said,Edward W.Culture and Imperialism.Knopf,1994.)

        如果作者名字已经在句子中提到,则只在括号内标注页码(如为网站等则不标注)

        例:According to Edward W.Said,imperialism is defined by“the practice,the theory,and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory”(9).

        文末引用格式:

        字体等格式与总体一致。在第一行中间注明work cited。每个引用条目除首行外缩进半英寸。不需要标号,但需要以字母顺序排列。

        引用条目所罗列的元素原则上多多益善,但是如果有实在没法找到的也可以省略。元素应排列如下:

        作者。文献名称。文献所属上级(container),其他参与者,版本(version),版号(Number),出版商,出版日期,位置(location)。

        例:Work Cited

        Bernstein,Mark.”10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.”A List Apart:For People Who Make Websites,16 Aug.2002

       三、Referencing的其他使用注意

        当老师布置论文或者其他文章时,一般会建议reference的个数。个数和文章的内容和字数有关系,比如一千字的论文,可能会有十个左右的引用。当然引用的个数和论文的深度和难度也有关系。需要注意的是,并不是Reference的个数越多越好。无意义的Reference会使文章失去批判性,而且无论如何转述引用内容,都会增加文章的重复率。

        在写作过程中参考的书目,不一定都引用在论文或文章中,作者可能受到了启发,而且这些书目的阅读也是为了这篇论文或者文章做准备,这样的书目也可以列在referencing中。

        引用的内容可以是直接引用、照搬原句Quotation,也可以转述改写后的引用Citation,转述后的引用仍然算作Reference。英文论文查抄袭率(例如Turnitin软件)的要求非常严格,即使是在引号内的引用内容也会作为重复率的一部分,所以应尽量少用Quotation,当需要大段引用别人的观点时,也一定要用自己的话转述。

        以上就是Meeloun小编给同学们分享的关于各种reference写作的讲解,同学们在完成essay写作之后一定要仔细检查引用格式是否正确,不要在这方面丢分!需要essay代写的同学可以扫描右边的二维码联系我们的客服哦!美伦现旗下写手超过400名,海龟硕博占据50%以上,更多写手资源正在火热招募中。美伦以质量为根本,诚信服务,严格执行双重审稿与检测,保证每一篇稿子都是精心原创并符合学科的需求,保障了留学生论文作业的通过率。

留学小白完成essay写作可能会经历哪些步骤

        在各位留学生涯中,Essay写作一定是同学们接触最早也是最多的一种学术论文问题,所以今天Meeloun小编就给同学们分享一下Essay从构思到写作的步骤。

lazy loading - 留学小白完成essay写作可能会经历哪些步骤

essay写作

        首先是对essay进行问题分析,根据题目我们可以将问题分为Topic、Aspect、Focus/limiting words、Instruction words和Viewpoints/assumptions。

        比如,针对题目To what extent should Western universities change their own culture in order to help international students?

        Topic是Internationalisation in higher education;

        Aspect是Internationally mobile students(IMS)AND western universities;

        limiting words是academic culture shock AND Western unis own adjustment;

        instruction words是What is meant by….To what extent should;.

        viewpoints/assumptions是IMS do experience something called culture shock;Western unis should adjust to some extent(but how much?).

        然后指定论文大纲。分解essay题目问题之后,就需要考虑essay的整体写作结构了。一般情况下,essay分为,introduction,main body和conclusion三部分。在introduction部分,我们需要考虑essay的研究背景、目标以及文章结构;main body则需要考虑回答一些研究问题的可能性思考,考虑可以讨论的有趣点,同时这些点需要通过do researc找到合适的source,而Conclusion部分则主要描述essay的中心论点。之后便可以根据该框架进行内容填充了,通过详细研究,在框架中添加一些细节性的内容。

        最后便是根据详细制定段落了。在此过程中我们可以结合source中找到的样例和证据,放到合适的argument下,然后形成文章的段落结构。除此之外,一定要记得加上正确的reference。需要essay代写的同学可以扫描右边的二维码联系我们的客服哦!

Common App中的Personal Essay怎么写

        你知道通用申请吗?

        通用申请(Common Application),简称Common App,一个用于申请美国517所高等院校(包括47个州和华盛顿特区)、奥地利、法国、德国、意大利、瑞士、英国等海外国家以及中国大陆部分中外合作高校的应用网站。

        除了客观的分数和学校排名因素以外,它还有其他主观因素被纳入考量,例如文书(personal essay),推荐信(recommendation),课外活动(extracurriculiar activities),等等。其中personal essay是至关重要的一环。

        本期Meeloun便与大家分享七个essay prompts中的第一个

        Option#1

        Some students have a background,identity,interest,or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it.

        “Identity”是本题的关键字。

        无论是背景也好,兴趣爱好也罢,都是让你之所以是“你”的理由。所以,选择了这个话题,你可以通过一个或者是一系列的事件来阐述你的uniqueness。而事件的选择,应把重点放在解释“meaningful”上。

        Sample Essay

        Wallflower

        I wasn’t unfamiliar with the word.It was something I remembered hearing since I was able to grasp the fine art of polysyllabic language.Of course,in my experience,it had always been subtly laced with negativity.They told me that it wasn’t something I was supposed to be.They told me to socialize more—okay,maybe they had a point there—but to open up to strangers I didn’t know from Adam?Apparently,yes,that was exactly what I was to do.I had to’put myself out there,’or something.They told me I couldn’t be a wallflower.Wallflower was unnatural.Wallflower was wrong.So my impressionable younger self tried her best not to see the inherent beauty in the word.I wasn’t supposed to see it;no one else did.I was terrified to recognize its rightness.And that was where Charlie came in.

        The Writing:从复杂短语“the fine art of polysyllabic language“到“I understood him.I was him.He was me”三个主谓宾的简单串联,可以一窥作者对英语的掌控力。

        Before I get any further,I feel obligated to mention that Charlie is not real.I question whether that makes a difference—it shouldn’t,really.Fictional,factual,or seven-dimensional,his influence in my life is indisputable.But,to give credit where credit is overwhelmingly due,he comes from the brilliant mind of Stephen Chbosky,from the universe of his novel,The Perks of Being a Wallflower.In a series of anonymous letters to an unknown friend,Charlie tells his story of life,love,and high school:of skirting the fringes of life and of learning to make the leap.And from the first sentences,I was drawn to Charlie.I understood him.I was him.He was me.I felt acutely his fears of entering high school,his just-barely-perceptible separation from the rest of the student body,because these fears were mine as well

        The Tone:虽然作者自称“壁花少女”,但通读全文,明显感到这篇文章出自一个正能量的“元气少女”。文章主题严肃,但字体行间却透着诙谐与幽默,作者完美地平衡了戏谑与说理。若要说不足,便是语言有时过于抽象。比如,“beauty”一词多次出现,但并没有被清楚地定义。

        What I didn’t have,the singular distinction between this character and myself,was his vision.Even from the very beginning,Charlie’s innocence and naivetégave him an unparalleled ability to see beauty in everything and to acknowledge it without hesitation exactly as I’d longed to allow myself to do.I had been scared to be the only one to value being a wallflower.But with Charlie came the promise that I wasn’t alone.

        When I saw that he could see what I wanted to see,I suddenly found that I could see it,too.He showed me that the true beauty in being a wallflower was the ability to acknowledge freely that beauty,to embrace it for everything it was while still managing to’put myself out there’on a level I hadn’t thought myself capable.Charlie taught me not conformity,but the honest,open expression of myself,free from the vise-like fear of being judged by my peers.He told me that sometimes,they were wrong.Sometimes,it was okay to be a wallflower.Wallflower was beautiful.Wallflower was right.

        And for that,Charlie,I am forever in your debt.

        The Topic:光是瞄一眼题目就足以让读者对文章期待满满。老实说,选择一个不走寻常路的题目是冒险且需要勇气的,尤其是在众多申请者绞尽脑汁编出一些“丰碑性”的事件的大背景下,本文的题目及立意尤为讨喜。

高分essay代写范文:尼日利亚的教育问题

        下面Meeloun小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Improvement in Education Is Needed for Nigeria’s Development,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了尼日利亚的教育问题。目前,尼日利亚面临的许多挑战中,促进其国家发展最重要的是改进教育制度,因为教育是决定未来一代如何生活的根本因素。而尼日利亚的教育问题根源在于其入学率非常低,广泛的贫困、政治不稳定、庞大的童工市场、文化原因以及严重的性别歧视等原因是导致其问题的关键。

lazy loading - 高分essay代写范文:尼日利亚的教育问题

高分essay代写范文

        Introduction 介绍

        1960年独立后,尼日利亚一直在政治动荡和经济问题中挣扎。尼日利亚政府必须面对许多历史和新问题,例如石油经济的改革、处理种族和宗教紧张局势以及发展民主(CIA)。然而,从人民的角度来看,在尼日利亚目前面临的诸多挑战中,促进国家发展最重要的是完善教育体系,因为教育是年轻人/未来一代人的根本决定因素。总的来说,当一个国家年纪较大时,就会在社会中发挥作用,因此,这是一个国家能够为其未来做出的最直接的投资,在社会的所有领域都会产生严重的后果。

        After it independence in 1960, Nigeria has been struggling in political turbulence and economic problems. There are many historical and new issues that the Nigerian government has to face, such as the reforming of the petroleum-based economy, dealing with the ethnic and religious tensions, and developing democracy (CIA). However, from the people’s perspective, among the many challenges Nigeria is currently facing, the most important to furthering its national development is to improve the education system, since education is the fundamental determinant of how the young/future generation. In general, will perform in society when they are older, and therefore is the most direct investment that a country can make for its future, with serious consequences in all realms of society.

        Low School Enrollment in Nigeria

        The most fundamental issue facing the Nigerian education system is the low enrollment rate of children in primary schools. In Nigeria, 40% of children aged six to eleven do not attend primary school, and this proportion can be considerably higher in the impoverished inland north. 30% of students have not completed their primary school education, and only 54% of them successfully matriculate into the country’s middle schools (Unicef). This low rate of education among the youth dramatically reduces the job options for the younger generation, resulting in low utilization rate of human capital and limiting the overall development of Nigeria.

        A major concern is the gender gap. Compared to the boys, Nigerian girls are less likely to attend school. The causes are complex but roughly include four aspects: cultural barriers, family financial difficulties, child labor market, and early marriage. Cultural and religious norms have limited the role of women in Nigeria. Most parents of girls are more willing to only send their children to Qur’anic schools (Unicef). Even for those who managed to enroll in secular schools, 30% of them might drop out. Early marriage is another issue that keeps the girls from being educated, and poverty is another reason. The cost of education is a heavy burden for some poor families because they cannot afford the tuition, books, materials, transportation, and other costs of educating their child, and the state provides very limited assistance. The cost of indirect education for girls is also seen as higher than boys, and this is also linked to the issue of child labor. In Nigeria, child labor is a necessary income stream for poor households (Unicef). Girls working as child laborers not only save on the cost of direct education, they could also help with housework, take care of siblings, and also provide cheap, productive labor and make additional income for the family. Early marriage is also more of a problem for girls than boys. Once the girls get married, they inevitably have children, and the chance for them to continue their education drops to a much lower level than before.

        The low education level of the country’s women deeply affects Nigeria’s national prosperity. As these women become poorly educated laborers for life, they can only pursue entry-level jobs. What is worse, the fertility rate remains high in poor households, continuing the low-income developmental trap (Sachs, 2005). Having six or seven children leaves the women no choice but to play the role of homemaker and exclusively focus on parenting, plus her lack of education makes her less competitive in the job market. Education will bring many social achievements and economic benefits, but the lack of female education in Nigeria deprived them of the opportunity to participate in the future economic development of the country. This situation forms a negative cycle for the women of Nigeria and it is leaving half the population with an inability to contribute to the development of the country or of themselves.

        Balancing Increased Enrollment With Quality Improvements

        Not only should we be concerned about whether the children, and how many of them, are attending school in Nigeria, but we should also pay attention to the quality of education in the country, which, also sorely needs to be improved. The government has launched policies to improve the education quality of Nigeria, such as the Universal Basic Education Scheme in 1999, and has emphasized the improvement of teaching quality, assessment, and teacher training as the priorities (Majo, 2000). However, as current statistics show, improvements have been quite limited. The general direction of development seems to be correct (Sen, 1988), but the biggest challenge facing education is still financial support and funding.

        First of all, the number of schools in Nigeria, as well as the number of facilities and employees/teachers of these institutions, is not proportionally equivalent to the number of school age children. This makes it hard to improve the quality and efficiency of the education system. Statistics show that, on average, 600 of primary school students in Nigeria have to share a single toilet. Most schools in rural areas also lack water, electricity, and other basic resources. As for the number of schools, there were about 54,000 public primary schools in 2009 (Abuja). From a numeric perspective, this seems sufficient, but disparities in quality are extreme and highly unsatisfactory. Another problem is that the entire northern part of the country is experiencing a low-level civil war as the Boko Haram conducts its insurgency. This does not help to secure the budget to improve the education system. A lack of qualified teachers is another issue.

        The education system could be largely improved by securing an amount of funding that is decent enough to support the educational institutions. While many governments have policies for free and compulsory education, however, most developing countries are unable to maintain comprehensive free education, such as Nigeria. And non-free education will cause the problem of poor households being unable to afford the children education. As a recession economy, it is difficult for Nigeria to guarantee free education for the people. Moreover, experience around the world show that free education is only a slogan unless parents, people, or governments have economic capacity. Nigeria could therefore consider the establishment of a program that directly or indirectly raises funds for its national education system (Adeyemi, 2011). However, in the implementation of the program, it is necessary to pay attention to corruption. The gap between rich and poor in many poor countries is relatively large, and given the lack of government regulation, corruption continues to breed. It is important to pay attention to the future of the country through the education program.

        Child Labor Market’s Effect on Education System

        Another factor that decreases the number of children attending schools is that the Nigerian labor market soaks up a large number of school age children (of both genders) to work as they are not supposed to. In Nigeria, there are approximately 15 million children under 14 years old who have become laborers, doing unwanted jobs that could potentially harm their physical and mental health. Although Nigeria passed a Child’s Rights Law in 2003, not all 36 states had accepted it. The process of taking the law in each state is still ongoing; meanwhile, child labor is still very common in the north (Kure, 2013).

        This situation is difficult to be change, or at least to be seriously improved, and poverty is the most obvious reason for the short- term because the child laborers’ incomes have become necessary for their families. Without that portion of money, the chance of the children to get future education would be even lower because of poverty. Lack of education is also a primary cause of child labor in Nigeria. “Where between 60% – 70% of child labor is prevalent, do not posses adequate school facilities. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable, or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.” (Nwazuoke & Igwe, 2016). Other reasons for non-attendance include such reasons as broken homes, and parental absence should also be taken into consideration.

        The consequences could be easily foretold. If the children continue to become laborers instead of learning knowledge in school, this poverty trap will be inescapable for the entire nation, since the future generation is not receiving enough education which can improve their society and lives in the future. In addition, child labor would also increase the risk of injuries, disabilities, and even death of workers. Also, due to lack of management, education, and boundaries, some children might become sex workers, street criminals or join political movements to reform society, which may also have additional effects in destabilizing the country. The increasing political participation might lead to violence (Huntington, 1971). All of the above pose risks to the future development of the entire country.

        Conclusion

        Nigeria has a strong capacity for potential development, with its massive resources and large population, but a number of extensive and long-term problems have thwarted its development and becoming a major power and strong civil society. Nigeria’s extensive poverty, political instability, large child labor markets, cultural reasons and high levels of sexism and gender inequality and other reasons have kept enrollment rates very low and are harming the future development prospects of the nation. Increasing this enrollment rate, and improving the quality of education that the students receive, is vital to securing Nigeria’s future and to securing the welfare of its citizens. Attempts have been made to focus on these issues and they are widely recognized, but little progress has been made in recent years. It will be necessary to secure a stable political and security environment as a basis for this, after which revenue streams will need to be developed that can eliminate the child labor market, increase student enrollment, and begin to channel funds towards improving school quality while cleaning up corruption and rolling back some of the sexism that has been harming the future of women and of the country as a whole.

Assignment中的essay和report有哪些区别?

        最近很多留学生在写dissertation。然而都到了毕业了,Essay和Report还是有人傻傻分不清楚。于是为了帮助没有头绪的人,希望这篇文章可以为你提供一些见解。

lazy loading - Assignment中的essay和report有哪些区别?

assignment写作详解

        首先,留学生们的作业统称为assignment(主要是欧美国家,不过英国也是这个叫法),而在assignment下面区分为Essay和Report。这二者在形式上会有所不同,但大体类似。例如字数往往都是2,3千左右

        ESSAY

        相较于report,比较简单,而且较为学术,通常看不到大学以外的资料。一般都是以论述为主,多为研究学术类的课题,目的是讨论,探索和向读者展示,让读者对某一主题的分析产生认同。需要仔细体会,认真理解。不过和report不同的是,读者是未知的,可能是大学生或者学者等。

        Report一般分为3部分:

        绪论(Introduction)

        主体(Main Body)

        结论(Conclusion)

        其中绪论包括主题背景介绍和文章要解决的问题,主体则是根据问题提到的几个方面进行逐一讨论,结尾需要把文章中的主要观点进行概括。通常标题放在开头,不需要副标题。绪论和结尾则各占字数的10%,主体占80%。

        Report

        大多数是以信息输出为主,总结信息,给出有价值的结论。由作者通过调查研究和运用相关理论知识解决某一实际问题,传递给读者某个主题大量实用信息,以便读者可以快速浏览。一般都会有特定的读者,例如某公司CEO,因此包含多种类型,例如学术报告,期刊文章,实验报告等。这类作业要求更严格,有非常正式的结构,通常需要建立标题页,包括标题和executive summary,其中执行摘要是为读者提供报告的主要目的,即分析流程,调查结果和建议,是为了那些没有足够时间读完整报告的读者提供足够的信息,帮助他们做出明智的决定,并鼓励继续阅读。

        另外和Essay不同的是,在conclusion后面要加入recommendation,这是对提出的问题的建议,而且report需要运用次级标记,并用序号注明,使得文章更具层次感。同时,要根据需要使用图形,图标等资料。

        除此以上两种外,我们现在进行的毕业论文应该属于dissertation,通常要求至少8000,而且reference超过50篇,并且introduction和conclusion占总字数的25%,Literature,review占35%。这个数据感觉和老师给我们的分值差不多。

        Assignment写作的路是艰难的,但是事情完成之后的喜悦也会是巨大的。都说现在要讲究“延迟性满足”,写论文就是最好的一种方式,尤其是dissertation。祝愿每个和论文“斗智斗勇”的小伙伴,都可以顺利完成,拿到自己满意的成绩。我们一起加油!!!

Essay写作中的“produce”如何替换?

        在国外essay写作中,“产生”(produce)这个词的应用极为广泛,例如产生结果、产生兴趣、产生变化、产生感情等等。通常情况下,我们常用的表达方式有produce/bring about/generate/have/give rise to……这些词都比较常规,写出来的文章看起来会不太高级。若想得高分,还是要给句子升级,例如我们可以用evolve/ emerge/ arise/ engender/ yield/ exert…等词汇。

        不过这些高级词汇的用法有一定的局限性,比如 engender 一般产生的是某种情绪、引起争论。evolve/ emerge/ arise 后面接 from,表示产生于。yield 多接比较好的结果,exert 不接人的时候,常常搭配较为消极的意思。大家在替换前,要注意具体场景。

        下面给大家提供 3 个简单句,看看怎么用上面推荐的一些其他方式替换“产生”。

lazy loading - Essay写作中的“produce”如何替换?

essay写作替换技巧

        示范1:

        简单句

        Farms should produce organic food.

        替换产生

        Farms should yield organic food.

        扩展:as + doing

        As GM food poses potential risks to health, farms should yield organic food, ensuring that people have a balanced intake of all needed nutrition.

        示范2:

        简单句

        Some drugs and vaccines are produced by genetic engineering.

        替换产生

        Some drugs and vaccines arise from genetic engineering.

        扩展:as + doing

        As virus becomes more deadly, some drugs and vaccines arise from genetic engineering, saving millions of valuable lives.

        示范3:

        简单句

        Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment.

        替换产生

        Tourism can exert a negative effect on the natural environment.

        扩展:as + doing

        As countless holidaymakers flood into the tourist spot, tourism can exert a negative effect on the natural environment, producing pollution and waste that the earth cannot dispose of.

        其他场景搭配:

        产生兴趣:be interested in

        产生错觉:give an illusion/ form a misconception

        产生想法:the idea evolves from

        产生需求:when the need arises

        产生感情:form an attachment/ become fond of

        产生误解:cause misunderstanding

        产生力量:generate power

        产生问号:give rise to questions

Management期末复习技巧分享

        到了这个时候,如果你还没开始整理之前的知识点,如果你还没弄清楚key concepts的差异,点开这篇文章就对了!Meeloun小编呕心沥血的找了各种资源,为你整理了一份关于Management课程的期末复习技巧!一起来看看吧

lazy loading - Management期末复习技巧分享

Management复习技巧

        Organization Behaviour

        1. 对于OB复习来说,同学们首先需要非常清楚每一个topic的框架。了解每一个topic所涉及的theory,以及该theory包含的components。建议同学们画一份Mind Map。

        2. 同学们不需要太过担心没有把全部Case背下来或者看完。这并不是复习OB的重点。重点应该focus on theory的复习。只有将所有theory里每一个知识点都理解并背熟之后,你才能知道在case中,需要寻找的关键点和答案,不然单单把case背下来也无济于事。

        3. Final考试中分为宏观(75%)微观(25%)两个大内容。根据比重,如果最后实在来不及,可以侧重于宏观知识点的复习。Lecture slides 上的所有内容都将成为考试内容,definition尤为重要,但类似关于为什么重要为什么不适用等可以相对忽略。

        Enterprise Performance Management

        1. OB和Cost management的一些基础理念会对这门的学习有很大帮助。

        2. EPM所有的知识都是起源于两大Theme。(1) Performance Measurement and control 以及(2)Planning and control。因此心中一定要知道学到的知识是如何跟每一个theme相关的。

        3. 开心也好,不开心也好。一定要把每个知识点背下来,然后再进行理解。在考试的时候是会看key points给分的,如果连点都没有,更不可能开展每一个点之后的延伸,因此理解每一个concept背后的应用非常重要。Tutorial的case study你应该是不会在考试的时候见到的,所以把lecture slides要看熟很重要!

        Cost Management

        1. CM可以算是建立在Accounting基础上的Management课程,accounting的techniques是建造这个课程的砖,也是贯穿你一个学期学习的内容。但是决定你分数,甚至决定你有没有办法pass的;则是建立在这些基础上的宏观理解能力,对公司决策的判断,对大局的把控,以及带有business sense的逻辑推断。

        2. Tutorial的问题会比Final的更难,所以不用反复做Tute Questions,更重要的是通过Tutorial 理解题型考法,以便更好的预测final考点,更好的理解书中的concepts。因为final将会是理论和计算的结合。

        3. CM这门课的每一周内容环环相扣,一旦脱节会很难跟上后面的新知识点。所以一定要提前复习,把前面不懂得知识点补起来!

留学生收到feedback后要如何做essay proofreading?

        相信很多留学生在国外留学期间写的essay都拿到过feedback吧!拿到feedback时是不是心都碎了。Don’t worry!都看过来。大家不能让教授读不懂你的Draft。如果你的论文中有大段大段的unclear,那么请试想一下教授会像国内的语言老师把你们unclear的英文句子还尽量用中文思维去理解,并给出差不多意思的英文例句吗?显然不可能,他们读不懂只会是一个大写的Unclear。。。那么你的内容他们会评估吗?绝对没这个可能!所以时至今日,说什么也晚了,但如果现在努力的话,亡羊补牢还为之不晚。具体应该怎么做呢?

lazy loading - 留学生收到feedback后要如何做essay proofreading?

essay修改润色

首先Meeloun小编为大家列出以下几种情况!

        情况一:如果essay写作一点都不会的话(少于3个包括3个)

        1.步骤:首先把自己要说的所有话,每字每句编辑成中文打出来,自己先去翻译,然后再用谷歌翻译。(注:一定要用最简单的,最接近英语思维的说话方式去编辑中文,这样翻译出来的也就更准确)。Google翻译虽然有时候会出错,但是最简单的就是这个方法,并且简单的翻译一般都不会出错。

        2.解释:不要说语言班老师不让,用谷歌翻译出来的英文很古怪。重点是你现在连基本的表达都做不到,只能用google帮忙。你难道确定你比谷歌翻译的要优秀?虽然有时候谷歌翻译的英文会有古怪之处,但至少能看明白,而你写出来的东西的确不古怪,但貌似只有中国人能看的明白!教授根本看不懂。大家思考一下,是否自己会存在这样的问题!当然这不是最优的办法,如果你的水平真的还不错,的确不需要这么做!这个方法适合刚到国外不知道essay怎么的同学。

        情况二:对于essay一知半解。

        1.步骤:首先你要先把被标记的句子进行修改,改到自认为没有语法问题之后进行下一步。剩余没有标出来的段落一句一句想清楚中文自己重新翻译一遍。(如何翻译同上!)

        2.解释:大家千万不要自认为改好了,放在grammarly 里面也是100分了,就觉得语法一定没问题。那你真的是想多了!1.教授没标注的句子,基本算是OK,但还是要查一遍,以防教授看漏。2.教授标出来的所有语法问题改正它。3.教授标出的所有unclear的句子,就意味着这句话被判死刑了,一定是要重写的。

        情况三:有没有离题的段落,也有偏题的段落,还有些段落不知道在说什么。

        1.步骤:1. 把未离题的句子修改好。2. 不知道在说什么的段落意味着你的逻辑和内容都存在着一些问题,因此你要重新思考一下你的前后逻辑,以及你的essay是否符合该段落的要求。3.对完全离题的段落,每句话都要重写,另外所有unclear的句子也要重写。

        2.解释:修改方面同学千万不能掉以轻心,因为教授已经给你警告了,如果第二次交essay还不改的话基本过不了了!很多时候同学们稍微一疏忽,有些地方没有改完,就会导致最后essay成绩不及格。

留学生找essay代写不能只看排名

        感恩节来了!相信很多留学生都有自己的出游计划了吧?这种不长不短的假期最好的选择就是去附近城市走走,领略一下国外的风土人情。当然了,假期作业肯定是少不了的。有essay的同学也想出去旅游的话怎么办呢?当然是找essay代写机构帮你完成了!很多留学生急着列自己的出游计划,在找代写时就很随意,搜索essay代写然后找排名较好的机构直接下单,完全不考虑其他因素。那么这样会有哪些影响呢?Meeloun小编给同学们分析一下。

lazy loading - 留学生找essay代写不能只看排名

essay代写排名

        首先第一步同学们做得很好,没有相信那些微信群小广告或者邮箱里的广告,这样同学们被骗的几率会小很多。但并不代表就不会被骗。有时候排名很好的站不代表就靠谱,为什么呢?有些网站的排名很好,但是在首页的时间很短。原因是这种网站是通过作弊上的首页,如果同学们急着找essay代写但是没有注意这些细节的话,就很容易被骗。Meeloun小编给出的解决方法是:使用多个搜索引擎进行搜索,查看综合排名。找那些出现次数比较频繁的网站要靠谱的多。

        还有的同学急着找essay代写,价格也不问清楚就下单。如果碰上黑心机构的话,可能会被抬价。所以同学们一定不要着急,把该问的都问清楚,也把自己的作业情况如实汇报给客服,这样客服才会根据作业情况定价。最好的方法是同时找几家机构对自己的作业进行定价,再选定一个你认为价格比较合理的机构进行相关服务。essay和网课不都是互通的嘛 为什么要抓这一个点来说呢 这完全就是双标吗

        以上就是Meeloun给同学们的答案:找essay代写只看排名是不行的。想要把风险降到最低,就不能随便找一个代写机构了事,必须对自己负责。毕竟要是essay出了问题,被骗钱或者挂科都不说,如果影响到你的留学生涯,到时候后悔都来不及。当然了,只要同学们遵循了Meeloun小编的建议,是不会出现任何问题的。Meeloun新客户下单立减5%哦!同学们抓紧时间!

在知乎上找essay代写靠谱吗?

        很多留学新生初到国外,都会被各种essay代写的信息轰炸。邮箱、微信、学校厕所、电脑机房都逃不过它们的手掌心。有些心大的同学可能会直接联系它们,还有一些想找代写又比较谨慎的留学生就一直不敢找这类代写。毕竟网上被骗的例子那么多,谁都不想成为下一个倒霉蛋。同学们不敢相信这些广告,是因为平台的问题。如果在知乎这个专业的问答平台上出现代写广告,效果怕是要比垃圾邮箱,微信群广告等地方出现的广告要好的多。那么知乎上那些essay代写真的信得过吗?Meeloun小编下面简单给同学们分析一下。

lazy loading - 在知乎上找essay代写靠谱吗?

essay代写知乎

        同学们平时都是自动屏蔽邮箱和微信群广告的,内心对这里面的广告已经是不信任的,因此在找代写时更不敢信任它们。知乎就不一样了,里面有各个专业的大神,同学们在浏览一些专业知识时经常看的一愣一愣的,对于这个平台的信任值也有很高。但是,同学们要知道,里面的专业大神的确很多,但是也不乏混杂着一些不靠谱的代写机构的人。这类人就是利用同学们的信任心理,在代写类的问题下面提问,然后打一波自己的广告,很多留学生看到了之后便联系他们,付了定金便玩消失,或者发你一篇随便复制粘贴的论文。这谁受得了?因此Meeloun小编在这里劝大家,在知乎上学习没有问题,但一定不要随便相信代写广告。哪怕它的广告词很吸引人,价格也很低,一定不要轻而易举的就付定金,至少要查证一下这个代写机构到底靠不靠谱。

        同学们要知道,不仅仅是知乎,如果在其他信任值较高的平台看到代写广告的话,比如天涯、豆瓣、虎扑等等,如果你不找代写,完全可以无视。如果你想找的话,那请一定要先查证,靠谱的话再继续详谈,这样就会避免被骗。因此,同学们要知道,在知乎上看到essay代写广告不一定信得过。小编也不一棒子打死,大家如果非要在知乎找,请一定先查证。不想在上面找的,可以扫描右边的二维码联系我们的客服哦!