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        下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Essay代写范文-Psychology in graphic design,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了平面设计中的心理学。平面设计是设计师们将自己的心理活动思想用图片或者是符号的形式进行传达,所以心理学与平面设计是密切相关的,是属于重叠的关系,即平面设计被心理学所影响,心理学也能够让设计师设计出更符合大众的产品。

lazy loading - 高分essay代写范文-平面设计中的心理学


        Graphic design is a design that expresses the information language through visual images or even media,and conveys the visual sense to individuals.Graphic design is designers to their own psychological activities in the form of pictures or symbols to convey.You can choose to create graphic design by combining graphics,or by hand painting.In graphic design,it not only brings aesthetic enjoyment to people in terms of visual sense,but also conveys information and ideas.”communication”refers to the process that the sender transmits information to the receiver by means of surrounding visual symbols.It not only refers to the communication within individuals,but also refers to the communication between individuals.Graphic design is derived from people’s behaviors in life,while psychology is to study people’s psychology and behavior rules.Therefore,graphic design and psychology are closely related.


        Psychology earliest can be traced back to ancient Greece,and the scientific psychology,has been to the early 19th century,the German doctor Wilhelm wundt is put forward,and in 1879,when Wilhelm wundt in university created the first psychological lab in leipzig,Germany,marks the birth of psychology,he also referred to as the”father of psychology”.The so-called psychology is a science specializing in the study of human and other biological psychological activities,behaviors and mental functions,which is related to both natural science and social science.It can also be called intermediate science or crossover science.Not only can make people know,but also can predict and timely regulate people’s psychological activities and behavioral activities of a regular science.


        Each design product is created according to people’s specific point,line,surface,composition,color and strong purpose.At the same time,it also contains the psychological activities of designers,which shows that there is psychology in graphic design.


        Psychology and graphic design are closely related and belong to an overlapping relationship,that is,graphic design is influenced by psychology,which can also enable designers to design products more in line with the public.First of all,there are points,lines and surfaces.Every piece of work or object,whether created artificially or existing naturally,contains points,lines and surfaces.About surface,Mr.Shi qixin’s”plane composition”describes:”when the length and width of the shape are greatly different,it will be a line.It can be said that the line is long and narrow.When the width of the line exceeds a certain amount,the feeling of the line will weaken and tend to the surface.”Plane composition”co-written by Mr.Xiang chunfang and Mr.Chen bing describes it as:”the point is the basis of all forms,but the size of the point cannot exceed a certain visual limit…Points and lines become surfaces when they exceed a certain visual limit.”Many phenomena show that points,lines and surfaces are closely related to psychology.If be in a piece of composition of a picture,draw two black circular plane,but size of these two black circular plane is different,put its in horizontal position,can let a person produce a kind of feeling of weightlessness,unconscious can be inclined toward bigger circular plane.However,if the horizontal position of the two is changed into a diagonal position,the position of the larger circle remains the same,and the smaller circle is placed on the upper right of the larger circle,a sense of space can be generated by pulling back and forth.These two cases indicate that the points,lines and planes in plane composition are closely related to psychology.


        In plane design,color is the eyeball that strikes a person most directly,bring the first feeling to the person.When the information of graphic design is transmitted,the receiver’s perception and sensitivity to it are the strongest.Black and white these two colors themselves are two extreme colors,they are brightness and brightness of the extreme contrast.Say the color of the house decoration with black and white contrast,black decoration and white decoration to bring people the first feeling is completely opposite.Of black decorate,if all around is black,the vision that gives a person the first impact feeling,the space that can let a person feel a room was narrowed.Of white decorate can have outspread feeling,give a person bright sense.Say again black and white dress,black dress will not consciously modify people’s original figure,so as to achieve the effect that people want,that is,people often say”thin”;White clothes,however,give people a sense of expansion,and do not modify people’s bodies,but more highlight people’s original bodies.The above shows that graphic design also contains the category of psychology.

        Modern plane design different from the traditional plane design,modern graphic designers in the design of graphic design,will combine the subjective and the objective,and also according to the object of a certain structure exaggerated and distorted to design expression,or design,that there is no powerful and unconstrained style objects to metaphor about social,interpersonal relationship and so on a series of profound connotation of degree.However,when people see a novel,vivid and interesting graphic design,vision is the first sense,and often produces a variety of emotions such as perception and intuition.A novel graphic design,will directly hit people’s eyeballs,get people from the inside out of the goodwill and appreciation.Why a whimsical,or even non-existent product design of the graphic design,it is likely to be favored by people?Because a graphic design is full of fun,can from the person gives on the vision impact,brings a series of psychological change,also is because caught people crave it really psychological characteristics,and for the people,this is a overturns the logic of a new experience,is adapted to the people need.

        All the creation of graphic design comes from people’s psychological activities.But if designers only according to their own psychological concept to design the graphic design is their own preference,it is meaningless.So designers not only according to their own psychological activities,but also the psychological factors of the audience.Humans subconsciously prefer to simplify everything.When people perceive things through their senses,they will always pay attention to the most important information and actively ignore the secondary information.Naturally,the main information remains in their mind.This kind of contracted change,abstract sex,it is the perception that people is born with.Especially in the era of developed information,more people tend to simplify the designed products.Of course,some people prefer complex designs.For example,some western countries prefer complex designs,believing that they will look more meaningful.

        But simple does not mean simple without connotation,but the more simple design contains more complex and profound connotation.Like an upside-down question mark,a rough look,this is an upside-down question mark,and a closer look,it’s the image of a pregnant woman.This is an icon designed by the designer for an institution,simple but not simple.Another example is that the same color brings different psychological feelings to people in different shapes.For example,the blue color is divided into a circle and a square.In the circle,it feels like a secluded lake.In the square,it feels like a free sky.Such as we can see the sign at the side of the road in life,said the shape of the triangle,is composed of yellow and black,the inside of the symbol is different,give a person the feeling is different also,just,there is an exclamation point,for example,an exclamation point itself is let a person feel is an important signal,apply to the signs of the means to pay attention to the danger.

        In Kenya hara’s book design within design,he says that”design is not a skill,but the ability to capture the essence and sense of things.”Design is human perception,human observation,human thinking and human psychology.We can learn from,graphic design and overlapping parts of two disciplines of psychology,they are closely related,in graphic design idea,we need to consider in the design in the use of color,composition,design elements,such as behind the visual psychology,combining with graphic design to the content of the performance,considering the practicality,artistry,according to the purpose of the graphic design,as far as possible for us to make our graphic design more scientific.Focusing on the design disciplines at the same time,we should constantly looking for some nutrients from other disciplines,and history tells us that design,aesthetics and psychology,mathematics,geometry,etc there is overlap between these disciplines,in today’s emphasis on interdisciplinary,so we can make the design more depth and more attractive.

美国高分essay代写范文:Cultural tourism

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Cultural tourism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了文化旅游。随着文化旅游的发展,世界各地的游客越来越多地追求独特的文化体验。因此,旅游目的地、旅游规划、规划部门不断开发新的旅游景点和项目,增加游客的体验,提高游客体验的质量。目前,在旅游目的地开发过程中,将旅游目的地和当地居民的文化和日常生活进行包装,打造旅游景点和消费旅游产品。旅游业也出现了类似的做法,但同时也出现了一些问题。在旅游发展的过程中,人们越来越关注文化遗产的真实性丧失和商业化,由此衍生出各种关于游客注视和伪事件的理论。

lazy loading - 美国高分essay代写范文:Cultural tourism



The development of cultural tourism has led to the increasing pursuit of unique cultural experiences by tourists around the globe. Therefore, tourism destinations, tourism planning, and planning departments are constantly developing new tourist attractions and projects, increasing the experience of tourists and improving the quality of tourists’ experiences. At present, during the development of tourist destinations, the culture and daily life of tourist destinations and local residents are packaged to create tourist attractions and consumer travel products. Similar practices have emerged in tourism, but there are also problems that occur at the same time. In the process of tourism development, various theories of tourists’ gaze and pseudo-events are derived from the increasing concerns over the loss of authenticity and over commercialization of cultural heritages. The key to balancing authenticity with commercialization becomes a concern for tourism planners all over the world, and relevant theoretical explorations are necessary for further improvement. Therefore, this paper intends to carry out further research and analysis on cultural tourism, and draw the relevant theoretical basis to provide theoretical basis for future tourism practices.

The focus of this article is to answer the following questions: How will the authenticity of tourism experience by influenced by tourists’ gaze? How does cultural tourism contribute to strengthening national identity and protecting local heritage sites? These questions will be answered through the case analyses of two famous tourist destination countries, Ireland and Singapore. The case analyses show that under tourists’ gaze, culture becomes less functional and more consumable. Authenticity of cultural tourism may not be necessarily diminished due to tourists’ gaze. Instead, the combination of cultural tourism with political needs will contribute to both the authenticity of the tourism experience and the sustainability of local culture and national identity.

I will eat two meals a day, one in the morning and the other in the evening. In the first meal, I will boil some pottage with everything left the day before such as oats, peas, beans, lentils, nuts, onion, carrot and cabbage. To be exact, it is a mixed stew. There is no salt at all. Therefore this meal is no flavor at all because it is neither salty nor sweet. I just eat it to make my stomach full and not to feel hungry. Compared with the morning meal, the evening meal sounds better because I can fry some dishes with butter and some herbs picked from the mountain to make the dishes more delicious. The evening staple is bread which is dark and coarse like a piece of black brick. As the important ingredients of my dishes, I fry some peas, beans and lentils. Luckily I have some low-alcohol ale to help me swallow the big piece of bread down. I also have some cheese to spread on the bread to make it taste good. Generally speaking, these two meals do not meet my standards no matter from the quality or the quantity. The medieval peasant meal is quite different from the current diet which I usually have at least three meals a day, sometimes a brunch and afternoon tea and midnight snack including some fruits and refreshments. The great variety of delicious foods in the restaurant are a feast for the eyes. I can eat anything I want needless to consider delicacies from land and sea or seasonal or local. Moreover I always have a good appetite including some eggs, bacon, sausages, fish, pork, beef and mutton because the current meal has a wonderful seasoning including some chili, ketchup, salt, sugar, pepper, sauce, cream and mustard. Imagining the feast prepared by these amazing condiments can make your mouth water if you do not care the calories in these dishes.

But after my experience of eating the medieval peasant meal for one day, I think I will change my current lifestyle and attitude toward food in some degree because my everyday diet is less healthy with much more calories. If I do not change my lifestyle, I think I will getting much fatter and fall ill in the future. Therefore I think occasionally maybe once or twice a week eating the medieval peasant meal is good for my health.Based on the determination made by the company to reduce the depreciable lives to match the cost of the fixed assets with the revenue produce, Hyde company has a Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) required change in account estimate. In order to conform with GAAP, Hyde company is required to make various assumptions and estimates that affect all aspects of financial reporting and as actual information is presented could have a change of accounting estimate. Under GAAP, Hyde company must account for a change in accounting estimate in the period of change and future periods if they are affected (Wahlen, Jones & Pagach, 2015). This means that the company does not need to perform a retrospective adjustment on a previously reported period rather the adjustment to reduce the depreciable lives of the assets will be a prospective revision recorded beginning in the period of the change in accounting estimate.

Hyde company will also need to disclose the revised amounts in the notes to its financial statements on how the change impacts income from continuing operations, net income and related earnings per share (Bragg, 2018). It’s important for the company to understand on the depreciable lives reduction will impact these items. The depreciation expense will increase over the reduced period which will have a direct negative effect on income from continuing operations, net income and earnings per share, however depreciation is added back for cash flow purposes. In order for the company to determine the effect of reducing the depreciable lives, Hyde company will need to calculate the revised periodic depreciation expense. At the beginning of the period of change, Hyde company will take the remaining book value of the assets less the salvage value and divide it by the new remaining depreciable life (Jan, 2013). Hyde company will then take the adjusted depreciation expense per period and debit depreciation expense and credit accumulated depreciation. The change of accounting estimate should also be disclosed in the financial statement notes to provide the amount of change and clarity to the company policy change if the useful life revision materially decreases the reported net income. The company should describe the revision in the footnotes to their financial statements to ensure shareholders and potential investors understand the financial impact of the change.

高分essay代写范文:Aboriginal Australian visual culture

        下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Aboriginal Australian visual culture供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了澳洲原住民视觉文化。视觉文化一般是指一系列的视觉图像传达的信息,通过各种绘画等视觉技术意义和情感。视觉文化在古代更多的是关于绘画和雕刻。澳洲原住民视觉文化是澳洲原住民创造的一系列文化影像,记录他们的日常生活,环境的变迁,以及他们的宗教信仰。通过视觉文化,我们可以更好地了解他们生活中的变化。

lazy loading - 高分essay代写范文:Aboriginal Australian visual culture


        I think that aboriginal Australian visual culture is a range of cultural images created by aboriginal Australian to record their daily life, the change of their environment and their religion named dreamtime. Rock art is an important part of their visual culture. There are different kinds of rock imagery for different cultural expression, such as X-ray imagery and bark imagery. The X-ray art is a form of painting with anatomical features (Patel, 35), which shows the aboriginal Australians’ interest in science. Visual culture is also a direct reflection of new changes in aboriginal Australians’ life. For example, contact rock art records their contact with the outside world. New objects like ships and knives were painted on rocks when the natives had contact with the new arrivals. Through the rock art, we can have a better understanding of the changes in their lives.

        Visual culture in general refers to a series of visual images conveying information, meaning and emotion through various visual technologies such as paintings (Mirzoeff, 3). Visual culture in the ancient times is more about paintings and engravings, while in the modern times, visual culture has new forms like television and movies.


        Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “What is Visual Culture?”

        Patel, Samir. “Reading the rocks: Aboriginal Australia’s Painted History.” Archaeology. 2011. pp. 32-38.

        Comment on Alissa B Essign

        Excellent work! I like your writing about the origin and of aboriginal Australian visual culture the role of visual culture in their daily life. I totally agree with you that visual culture reflects aboriginal Australians’ life and their beliefs. The visual art they create is based on what they feel and what they believe.


        下面Meeloun小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Improvement in Education Is Needed for Nigeria’s Development,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了尼日利亚的教育问题。目前,尼日利亚面临的许多挑战中,促进其国家发展最重要的是改进教育制度,因为教育是决定未来一代如何生活的根本因素。而尼日利亚的教育问题根源在于其入学率非常低,广泛的贫困、政治不稳定、庞大的童工市场、文化原因以及严重的性别歧视等原因是导致其问题的关键。

lazy loading - 高分essay代写范文:尼日利亚的教育问题


        Introduction 介绍


        After it independence in 1960, Nigeria has been struggling in political turbulence and economic problems. There are many historical and new issues that the Nigerian government has to face, such as the reforming of the petroleum-based economy, dealing with the ethnic and religious tensions, and developing democracy (CIA). However, from the people’s perspective, among the many challenges Nigeria is currently facing, the most important to furthering its national development is to improve the education system, since education is the fundamental determinant of how the young/future generation. In general, will perform in society when they are older, and therefore is the most direct investment that a country can make for its future, with serious consequences in all realms of society.

        Low School Enrollment in Nigeria

        The most fundamental issue facing the Nigerian education system is the low enrollment rate of children in primary schools. In Nigeria, 40% of children aged six to eleven do not attend primary school, and this proportion can be considerably higher in the impoverished inland north. 30% of students have not completed their primary school education, and only 54% of them successfully matriculate into the country’s middle schools (Unicef). This low rate of education among the youth dramatically reduces the job options for the younger generation, resulting in low utilization rate of human capital and limiting the overall development of Nigeria.

        A major concern is the gender gap. Compared to the boys, Nigerian girls are less likely to attend school. The causes are complex but roughly include four aspects: cultural barriers, family financial difficulties, child labor market, and early marriage. Cultural and religious norms have limited the role of women in Nigeria. Most parents of girls are more willing to only send their children to Qur’anic schools (Unicef). Even for those who managed to enroll in secular schools, 30% of them might drop out. Early marriage is another issue that keeps the girls from being educated, and poverty is another reason. The cost of education is a heavy burden for some poor families because they cannot afford the tuition, books, materials, transportation, and other costs of educating their child, and the state provides very limited assistance. The cost of indirect education for girls is also seen as higher than boys, and this is also linked to the issue of child labor. In Nigeria, child labor is a necessary income stream for poor households (Unicef). Girls working as child laborers not only save on the cost of direct education, they could also help with housework, take care of siblings, and also provide cheap, productive labor and make additional income for the family. Early marriage is also more of a problem for girls than boys. Once the girls get married, they inevitably have children, and the chance for them to continue their education drops to a much lower level than before.

        The low education level of the country’s women deeply affects Nigeria’s national prosperity. As these women become poorly educated laborers for life, they can only pursue entry-level jobs. What is worse, the fertility rate remains high in poor households, continuing the low-income developmental trap (Sachs, 2005). Having six or seven children leaves the women no choice but to play the role of homemaker and exclusively focus on parenting, plus her lack of education makes her less competitive in the job market. Education will bring many social achievements and economic benefits, but the lack of female education in Nigeria deprived them of the opportunity to participate in the future economic development of the country. This situation forms a negative cycle for the women of Nigeria and it is leaving half the population with an inability to contribute to the development of the country or of themselves.

        Balancing Increased Enrollment With Quality Improvements

        Not only should we be concerned about whether the children, and how many of them, are attending school in Nigeria, but we should also pay attention to the quality of education in the country, which, also sorely needs to be improved. The government has launched policies to improve the education quality of Nigeria, such as the Universal Basic Education Scheme in 1999, and has emphasized the improvement of teaching quality, assessment, and teacher training as the priorities (Majo, 2000). However, as current statistics show, improvements have been quite limited. The general direction of development seems to be correct (Sen, 1988), but the biggest challenge facing education is still financial support and funding.

        First of all, the number of schools in Nigeria, as well as the number of facilities and employees/teachers of these institutions, is not proportionally equivalent to the number of school age children. This makes it hard to improve the quality and efficiency of the education system. Statistics show that, on average, 600 of primary school students in Nigeria have to share a single toilet. Most schools in rural areas also lack water, electricity, and other basic resources. As for the number of schools, there were about 54,000 public primary schools in 2009 (Abuja). From a numeric perspective, this seems sufficient, but disparities in quality are extreme and highly unsatisfactory. Another problem is that the entire northern part of the country is experiencing a low-level civil war as the Boko Haram conducts its insurgency. This does not help to secure the budget to improve the education system. A lack of qualified teachers is another issue.

        The education system could be largely improved by securing an amount of funding that is decent enough to support the educational institutions. While many governments have policies for free and compulsory education, however, most developing countries are unable to maintain comprehensive free education, such as Nigeria. And non-free education will cause the problem of poor households being unable to afford the children education. As a recession economy, it is difficult for Nigeria to guarantee free education for the people. Moreover, experience around the world show that free education is only a slogan unless parents, people, or governments have economic capacity. Nigeria could therefore consider the establishment of a program that directly or indirectly raises funds for its national education system (Adeyemi, 2011). However, in the implementation of the program, it is necessary to pay attention to corruption. The gap between rich and poor in many poor countries is relatively large, and given the lack of government regulation, corruption continues to breed. It is important to pay attention to the future of the country through the education program.

        Child Labor Market’s Effect on Education System

        Another factor that decreases the number of children attending schools is that the Nigerian labor market soaks up a large number of school age children (of both genders) to work as they are not supposed to. In Nigeria, there are approximately 15 million children under 14 years old who have become laborers, doing unwanted jobs that could potentially harm their physical and mental health. Although Nigeria passed a Child’s Rights Law in 2003, not all 36 states had accepted it. The process of taking the law in each state is still ongoing; meanwhile, child labor is still very common in the north (Kure, 2013).

        This situation is difficult to be change, or at least to be seriously improved, and poverty is the most obvious reason for the short- term because the child laborers’ incomes have become necessary for their families. Without that portion of money, the chance of the children to get future education would be even lower because of poverty. Lack of education is also a primary cause of child labor in Nigeria. “Where between 60% – 70% of child labor is prevalent, do not posses adequate school facilities. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable, or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.” (Nwazuoke & Igwe, 2016). Other reasons for non-attendance include such reasons as broken homes, and parental absence should also be taken into consideration.

        The consequences could be easily foretold. If the children continue to become laborers instead of learning knowledge in school, this poverty trap will be inescapable for the entire nation, since the future generation is not receiving enough education which can improve their society and lives in the future. In addition, child labor would also increase the risk of injuries, disabilities, and even death of workers. Also, due to lack of management, education, and boundaries, some children might become sex workers, street criminals or join political movements to reform society, which may also have additional effects in destabilizing the country. The increasing political participation might lead to violence (Huntington, 1971). All of the above pose risks to the future development of the entire country.


        Nigeria has a strong capacity for potential development, with its massive resources and large population, but a number of extensive and long-term problems have thwarted its development and becoming a major power and strong civil society. Nigeria’s extensive poverty, political instability, large child labor markets, cultural reasons and high levels of sexism and gender inequality and other reasons have kept enrollment rates very low and are harming the future development prospects of the nation. Increasing this enrollment rate, and improving the quality of education that the students receive, is vital to securing Nigeria’s future and to securing the welfare of its citizens. Attempts have been made to focus on these issues and they are widely recognized, but little progress has been made in recent years. It will be necessary to secure a stable political and security environment as a basis for this, after which revenue streams will need to be developed that can eliminate the child labor market, increase student enrollment, and begin to channel funds towards improving school quality while cleaning up corruption and rolling back some of the sexism that has been harming the future of women and of the country as a whole.

高分essay代写范文:British private education

        下面Meeloun小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British private education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的私立教育。英国的基础教育阶段以公立学校为主,私立中小学所占比例较小,但其发展历史较长,形成了一批具有良好教育传统和较大规模的私立教育机构。英国学前、中小学、高等教育阶段的私立教育机构各有特点,但中小学和高等教育阶段的私立教育在整个教育体系中的占比不大。

lazy loading - 高分essay代写范文:British private education


        Early years or pre-school in England is for children between the ages of 0 and 5. All children aged three to four in England now get 570 hours of free pre-school a year. Some 2-year-olds from low-income families or with special educational needs also receive some free early education.

        There are various kinds of early education institutions in the UK, including chlidminders, domestic premises providers, non-domestic premises providers, early education institutions maintained by local governments, Independent schools with nursery provision.

        In the five categories of early education providers or institutions, except the early education institutions funded by local governments, all other institutions or individual services need to be purchased by parents, but the state will provide subsidies according to the number of children.

        In 2013, there were 55,900 child-care workers registered with the state supervision office, 17,900 full-time small-group early education institutions, 7,100 part-time early education institutions and only 450 full-time children’s centers. The number of after-school nursing institutions reached 13,400, 12,800 before classes, and 7,200 during holidays. School-based early education institutions include 400 pre-schools, 7,600 primary schools with all dependent pre-schools and pre-schools, and 8,800 primary schools with all pre-schools but no pre-schools.

        In the UK, the basic education stage is dominated by public schools, with private primary and secondary schools accounting for a small proportion. However, it has a long history and has formed a group of private education institutions with good educational tradition and large scale, such as Eton College and Harrow Schoo. These are considered the world’s top private schools.

        According to the department for education, as of October 21, 2014, there were 2,377 private primary and secondary schools in England, accounting for about 10% of the total number of 24,354 schools in England. In addition, about 60 new private schools are opened in England each year. As of January 2014, there were about 574,800 private primary and secondary students in England, accounting for about 7% of England’s 8.3 million primary and secondary students. There are a few private schools in Scotland and even fewer in Northern Ireland.

        In England and wales, private schools are called “independent schools”. British private schools are typical of the characteristics of privilege and elite education. The public school, the symbol of British private schools, is an obvious example. Strict selection and examination of new students, academic courses, high-level teachers and teaching are the premise and guarantee of its elite education function. But British private schools, with their high fees, are seen as “posh” schools, or stepping stones into them. According to the British broadcasting corporation reported in August 2014, the proportion of primary and middle school students attend private school in England, though only 7%, but 50% of the British parliament’s upper house members, 36% of the cabinet, parliament members of the house of Commons, 33% and 71% of senior judges, 62% of senior officers, 55% of senior civil servants, 53% of senior diplomats, 45% of public institutions, chairman of the 44% of the Sunday times rich list is a list of private school was born.

        After the war, private primary and secondary schools with the nature of church, such as Catholic schools and Anglican schools, were incorporated into the public education system and became Voluntary Aid school or Assisted school. The schools are still owned by the church and run by a semi-independent body, but are so tightly controlled by the government that they are no longer strictly private.

        In the 1980s, in order to change the uneven development and declining quality of British public schools, the conservative government under thatcher carried out a series of reforms to improve education standards and introduced the market into education. The education reform act of 1988 decided to establish urban technical colleges, which was an attempt to implement school autonomy. It is independent of local education authorities. About 80% of its school funding comes from the central education department. Another 20% is sponsored by local enterprises, thus giving enterprises the opportunity to participate in school education. In 2000, the former education and employment secretary, David Blunkett, announced the City Academies Programme as a complementary Programme for specialist schools to improve the quality of teaching in failing schools and improve academic achievement in such schools. City charter schools receive government funding but are run by private or voluntary groups. City Academies was dropped in 2008, which marked the beginning of charter schools in non-urban areas.

        In July 2010, the British government issued the Academy Act 2010, which still defined charter schools as public schools. However, charter schools have a high degree of autonomy in the process of running schools. The funds are not allocated by local education departments, but directly funded by the ministry of education. The government actively advocates the establishment of free schools. The only difference between free schools and charter schools is that the latter is mainly transformed from existing schools, while the former can provide parents and teachers dissatisfied with the local education situation with the opportunity to apply for opening new schools. In other words, if parents and teacher groups have a need, they can set up free schools through a certain application process. In fact, not only parents’ and teachers’ groups can apply to open new schools, but also universities, charities, businesses and voluntary groups can apply to open free schools. Free school is a special public school in nature, and the state’s financial allocation is still one of its most important financial sources. As of June 2014, the department for education had approved the admission of 331 free schools.

        There are 155 universities with independent degree awarding qualifications in the UK, of which six private institutions have the right to grant degrees, namely the University of Buckingham established in 1976, Regent’s University and University of Law approved in 2012, and BPP University, Ashridge Business School and ifs University College approved in 2013.

        There are also 650 Listed Bodies in the UK that offer complete degree courses but are not individually degree-granting. They can partner with degree-granting universities to enable their students to obtain university degrees. There are also higher education institutions in the UK that do not offer full degree programmes.

        In recent years, the continuous rise of private higher education institutions has also become a new feature of British independent education. Private universities, which rely entirely on tuition fees and are not funded by the government’s higher education funding council, are seen as a new way to develop higher education in Britain amid funding cuts. This approach can increase the number of college students without the need for taxpayer funding. The department for business, innovation and skills, which has introduced policies to encourage more competition in higher education, is considering changes to the law and easing restrictions to promote more private universities. More and more companies are also join this industry, such as the famous British press, and Pearson education institutions in February 2013 announced the opening of Pearson College, through the way of cooperation with public universities set up 2 years or 3 years is given priority to with practical skills and ability of business courses, working with public university diplomas. Other big private groups include Britain’s Cambridge Education Group and INTO, Australia’s Navitas and Study Group, and America’s Kaplan and Apollo Group. In addition, about 100 overseas private higher education institutions have branches in the UK.

        According to the “status of private higher education in the UK” report released by the department of business, innovation and skills in June 2013, there are at least 674 private higher education institutions in the UK, with a total number of about 160,000 students, while the total number of undergraduate and above students in the 2013-2014 academic year reached 2.34 million.

        Private pre-schools, independent schools and private universities in the UK are generally registered as charities. Although this gets less financial support, but can get a lot of preferential tax.

        The British government determines the amount of financial support based on the number of students in private pre-school institutions. Most private-school preschools operate mainly by charging parents.

        Private primary and secondary schools bear the major investment and operating costs by themselves, but if the local government arranges private schools to accept students, especially students with special needs in the community, the schools can receive government subsidies. According to the statistics report on special education needs of students in England released by the department for education on September 4, 2014, in 2014, the proportion of special education needs students admitted by independent schools was 5.1%, while that of non-public special education schools was 1.7%. The Independent School Council, which has 1,257 private School members, reported in its 2013-2014 academic year that its members received 117m from early education grants, local government grants, government music dance talent grants and other sources. According to a 2014 report by Oxford Economics, a consultancy, independent school board members contribute 9.5bn to the Gross Value Added of the UK economy, equivalent to the size of the city of Liverpool, and pay 3.6bn in taxes.

        The charter schools act of 2010, passed by the British government, allowed private schools to become charter schools on the condition that they provided free education. At the same time, the government strongly promotes the free schools program to support businesses, private, civil society and private schools to open free schools. Charter schools come from a wide range of sources, including individuals, enterprises, social groups, religious groups and universities.

        Charter school programs and free schools programs are increasingly breaking down the lines between private and public education. Many independent schools are already sponsoring or co-sponsoring public colleges, sharing expertise with public colleges and promoting public schools. By early 2014, 16 private schools had been incorporated into the public education system through free schools and charter programs, according to the department of education. More than 100 independent schools are expected to be added to the public education system over the next decade, the charter schools programme’s founder, Lord Andrew adonis, a former secretary of state for schools at the department for education, said in January 2014.

        Private higher education institutions mainly rely on tuition fees to maintain their operations. The British government supports private higher education institutions mainly by providing tuition loans to students through the Student Loan Company under the government. In addition, private institutions of higher education also apply for research funding, but their research capacity is generally weak, so they receive less funding. The following part mainly analyzes the support of tuition loan to private higher education institutions.

        After the government raised the cap on tuition fees to 9,000 in 2012, schools received less money directly from the government and more revenue from fees charged to students. Most students will be able to apply for a loan from the government when they enter the university. The tuition loan will be paid directly into the university’s account and will be repaid on a monthly basis after they graduate with an annual income of 21,000. Not only are university students from charities such as regent university and buckingham university eligible for student loans, but undergraduate students from for-profit higher education institutions such as BPP university are also eligible for student loans. In the 2012-13 academic year, private higher education institutions received 21,500 more student loans for tuition fees than in the 2010-11 academic year, according to a report by the union of university vice-chancellors.