Accounting essay又称之为：会计学论文文章，是学会计的同学经常遇到的作业形式之一。那么accounting essay哪里找呢？代写留学生会计学作业又应该注意些什么?下面我们就来给大家做一些解答
下面是一篇accounting essay sample，是一篇关于企业社会责任的话题。
Question：What is corporate social responsibility (CSR) and what are its theoretical foundations? Why is it important to business? Find an example of an Australian company that appears to have made CSR a priority and explain the types of activities they engage in and quantify the cost of these activities. What possible specific benefits can they hope to receive from their CSR activities and are they realistic?
Within the business world, the prime motive of a corporate was profitability which means purely to make money and increase share value. However, in the last decade, as social expectations change, groups in society are increasingly demanding the company to pursue social and environmental responsibility other than just financial responsibility (Wetherly and Otter 2011). These groups known as stakeholders which include employees, suppliers, consumers, government and others that have an interest in the entity’s affairs (Birt et al 2010). This paper will firstly demonstrates what corporate social responsibility (CSR) is, its theoretical foundations, and why it is important to business; Secondly, by studying Corporate Responsibility Report of Target Australia, discusses the types and costs of activities the business engaged in; And finally, to talk about the benefits a company would receive from the CSR activities and the reality of gains.
Corporate social responsibility is inclusion the duty to the society and environment into business operations and eliminates actions that harm the public sphere (Thomas and Nowak 2006). Business should be conducted based on ethical values with respect to the harmony of society and well beings of community. Thus, apart from making profits, companies are responsible for the totality of their impact on public and planet (Catalyst Consortium 2002). The most widely accepted theory to support CSR is the stakeholder theory. It was initially stated by Edward Freeman as a concept of organizational management and business ethics that emphasize morals and values in managing an entity (1984).
Long-term viability of an organization may be enhanced by a responsible social policy, as the community recognizes the company to add value to improve the quality of daily lives (Macgregor 2006). According to the European Union Commission, the importance of CSR can be comprehended in two ways: from the perspective of entity itself and the viewpoint of benefits of society as a whole (European Commission2006). Firstly, CSR, as the source of competitive advantage, is an important way to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises (Singapore Compact 2010). In order to encourage investment, some companies established corporate culture consistent with CSR which set a positive brand image and promote reputation in the industry. Moreover, the advantages may attract, retain and motivate talented employees to research and develop new products and services so as to meet demands of the community and solve social problems. (European Commission 2006). Secondly, if more ambitious enterprises take responsibility to the environment and society, the goal of achieving sustainable development will be earlier to reach (European Commission 2006). The most important social responsibility of an enterprise is to make the healthy development of the company, and to create more value to the society. A successful company will solve the unemployment problem; provide employee benefits as well as to pay government taxations. Government revenue will then be reinvested into the community to accomplish other corresponding social responsibilities.
Target Australia Pty Ltd, an Australian department store chain owned by Wesfarmers, can be an example which regards CSR as a priority in business practices and a transparently entity that disclosure Corporate Social Responsibility Report annually. A CSR report is defined as a released document that provides performance of the reporting entity in social, environmental and economic areas (Elkington 1997). This report consists of three parts: social responsibility initiatives, environmental responsibility initiatives and economic responsibility initiatives of the corporation (Target 2009). In the aspect of social responsibility, Target’s staffs and retirees volunteer hundreds of thousands hours of time and talent to help local nonprofit organizations. Besides, the company hires employees with diverse background in order to offer a selection of products in the store to fulfill wide-ranging tastes and demands of customers. A variety of pay and benefit plans are prepared for employees which is designed to help team members to achieve physical, emotional and financial well-being. Finally, Target ensure that products are manufactured comply with ethical and safety standards (Target 2009). In the aspect of environmental responsibility, Target is endeavor to be responsible for environment by using resources correctly, eliminating waste, offering organic and eco-friendly products, influencing suppliers and consumers to embrace sustainable practices (Target 2009). In the aspect of economic responsibility, to generate a high return to shareholders, the company carefully chooses every site of new stores; innovative marketing to increase profitable sales; closely controlled inventories and expenses. Moreover, a well-defined corporate governance strategy and ethical procedures to ensure the effectively and efficiently business operate, with consistent and transparent financial disclosure (Target 2009). In the light of CSR report, 5 percent of total income is used to sever the society which indicates over 3 million dollars every week uses to fulfill the responsibility to the community and environment (Target 2009).
It is believed that entities act with social responsibility because there are ultimately a number of benefits to its profit (Birt et al 2010). Firstly, ethical business behaviors of companies are the clear advantages in convincing investors. Some studies have revealed that an increasingly number of investors would prefer companies with strong CSR programs (Leslie 2007). CSR is regarded as a signal of the company’s long-term potentials. Secondly, CSR improves the company images, helps customers view Target positively and strengthens brand loyalty (Macgregor 2006). Thirdly, CSR contributes to recruit and retain employees (Arun 2004). Staffs are more willing to work in a safe and healthy environment and in a company with humanistic care. These benefits are realistic and obvious. Links between the welfare of society and the welfare of the corporation is recognized by firms more increasingly (Leslie 2007).
In conclusion, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is neither a slogan nor a strategy in public relations or advertising, it is formed during business growth. Through CSR, in cooperation with stakeholders on voluntary basis, a company can reconcile economic, social and environmental ambitions (European Commission 2006).
Arun,S. 2004, ‘China CEOs awaken to benefit of CSR’, Media: Asia’s Media and Marketing Newspaper, 2 July, viewed 30 April 2011, < http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=108&sid=f57f8680-c0ee-41b4-8c26-99fd5357a7ea@sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==#db=buh&AN=13871304 >
Birt,J., Chalmers,K., Byrne,S., Brooks, A., and Oliver, J. 2010, Accounting: Business reporting for decision making, 3rd Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
Catalyst Consortium.2002, What is corporate social responsibility?, Washington, DC.
Edward,F. 1984, Strategic Management: A stakeholder approach, Boston Pitman, Boston.
Elkington,J. 1997, Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business, Capstone, Oxford.
European Commission. 2006, Communication on CSR, Brussels
Leslie,M. 2007, ’Why future leaders should embrace fair trade and corporate social responsibility?’, Futurics, vol.31, no.1, pp.52-55, viewed 30 April 2011, ProQuest Central.
Macgregor,R. 2006, ’ what is Corporate Social responsibility?’, Finweek, 12 January, p.29.
Singapore Compact, 2010, What is CSR?, Singapore, viewed 30 April 2011, < http://www.csrsingapore.org/whatiscsr.php>
Target Australia Pty Ltd. 2009, 2009 Corporate responsibility report, Sydney.
Thomas, J. and Nowak, M. 2006, Corporate social responsibility: A definition, Curtin University of Technology, viewed 30 April 2011,
Wetherly, P. and Otter, D. 2011, In the business environment, Oxford University Press, Oxford.