essay代写|essay格式|essay代写价格-留学生essay代写网 - Part 30

Persuasive Essay写作应该注意一些问题

Persuasive Essay代写

Persuasive Essay是什么意思?Persuasive Essay中文成为:说服力文章,并非单纯的辩论性文章(点击了解argumenttative essay),是需要用陈述自己的观点并给以说服,需要列举论证和层层论证。下面我们将通过一些国外的文献资料来了解Persuasive Essay。

What is a persuasive/argument essay?

Persuasive writing, also known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and reason to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting experts.

When planning a persuasive essay, follow these steps(要做好一篇说服力文章的规划,遵循以下步骤)

Choose your position. Which side of the issue or problem are you going to write about, and what solution will you offer? Know the purpose of your essay.

Analyze your audience. Decide if your audience agrees with you, is neutral, or disagrees with your position.
Research your topic. A persuasive essay must provide specific and convincing evidence. Often it is necessary to go beyond your own knowledge and experience. You might need to go to the library or interview people who are experts on your topic.

Structure your essay. Figure out what evidence you will include and in what order you will present the evidence. Remember to consider your purpose, your audience, and you topic.
The following criteria are essential to produce an effective argument(以下的准则对于你的论点产生必不可少)

Be well informed about your topic. To add to your knowledge of a topic, read thoroughly about it, using legitimate sources. Take notes.

Test your thesis. Your thesis, i.e., argument, must have two sides. It must be debatable. If you can write down a thesis statement directly opposing your own, you will ensure that your own argument is debatable.

Disprove the opposing argument. Understand the opposite viewpoint of your position and then counter it by providing contrasting evidence or by finding mistakes and inconsistencies in the logic of the opposing argument.
Support your position with evidence. Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason.

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The following are different ways to support your argument:

Facts – A powerful means of convincing, facts can come from your reading, observation, or personal experience.

Note: Do not confuse facts with truths. A “truth” is an idea believed by many people, but it cannot be proven.
Statistics – These can provide excellent support. Be sure your statistics come from responsible sources. Always cite your sources.

Quotes – Direct quotes from leading experts that support your position are invaluable.

Examples – Examples enhance your meaning and make your ideas concrete. They are the proof.

Here are some ideas of popular persuasive essay topics:

    • Anorexia or model body
    • Encouraged abortions
    • School uniform
    • Drinking age
    • Free public transport
    • Smoking
    • Human cloning

  • Professional sport

These essay topic examples are debatable, it is important to choose the topic that is interesting for you.

下面给大家提供一些Persuasive Essay topics

  • Terrorist attacks in the United States.
  • Terrorism: it’s high time to stop that war.
  • Human cloning is wrong.
  • Human cloning and family values.
  • Greenhouse affect as a result of deforesting.
  • Pollution is a consistent demolition of the earth.
  • Anorexia is a cause of weight loss.
  • Abuse at home and domestic violence should be punished.
  • Abortion should be encouraged.
  • Media violence has a negative effect.
  • Single parent families – children which are devoid from full-fledged care.
  • The negative effect of divorce parents on child physics.
  • Unnecessary curfew for children under the age of fifteen.
  • The influence of the Internet: More harm than good or vice versa.
  • Abortion. Another name for murder or a desperate necessity.
  • Sexual abuse and incest should be banned or have a right to exist.
  • Free public transport for everybody: for or against.
  • School uniform. Good tradition or outdated habit.

Use these examples to write your own list of persuasive essay topics and good luck with your work!

金融专业essay代写-Investment Pension Management


Investment Pension Management


Organization strategic plan is a process that identifies and defines the strategic and directive decision making on the resource allocation in order to pursue and achieve its objectives. Direction determination is an advantage and important aspect in the organization. It is because it helps to pursue the avenues and the course of action in dealing with key aspects in the organization. In this case, the organization strategic planning should capture the vision; mission, values and strategy in order to formulate its end vision. The main reason and rationale for international investments are for diversification purposes and high pension returns. One advantages that international security foreign stocks are volatile as compared to other American stocks. In this way, addition of international stocks will expose the international security portfolio and reduce normal risks without attracting low demands.

Such a position means that a 20% stock international portfolio and a 60% American stock portfolio will attract the same returns and attract lesser risks as compared to a 100% American stock. However, TMP Company should consider the fact that in case the international security market drops sharply; the foreign market correlation will rise significantly. Additionally, TMP Company should consider the negative aspects of international investing which includes attracting high transaction expenses, custody fees expenses, management expenses, operational expenses and tax expenses.


One disadvantage is the presence or interference of risks. Other risks and expenses include currency and political risks. In this way, the company should use this approach to consider the returns from investing internationally, which have been affected and influenced by movements of currency. It is because currencies can cause high volatility. TMP Company has various investing international options. These options include integrating mutual money of funds that purchase foreign international securities and purchase of foreign direct securities. This introduces close end finances to purchase foreign international securities. Organization strategic plan managerial process is interconnected to four important functions. These functions include the organization, planning, motivational and control. The only limitations and disadvantages to this would be a lack of liquidity. The other problems and risks associated with a few technical issues in the policy investments. It is necessary to note that investment risks are reflected in the future and not the in real time information, uncertainty in the political arena, custodial and trading difficulties.代写essay


Expected high returns are an international security advantage. This is because the company international security portfolio intends to ensure that the company gets good returns. The security investments have been identified as a successful endeavor which is sure to bring the company high returns. High returns in the company will put company resources into Action, improve employee efficiency levels, leads to achievement of the organization’s desired goals, builds friendly relationships and ensures stability in the work force. Direct investments created many dynamics, which are as a result of following foreign rules from foreign international countries. Many research studies have shown that high international investments of up to 60 % can help a great deal in the improvement of returns and risks benefits. Most intellectuals have recommended that in this case, a range of 10% to 30% is introduced as high returns are expected.

The other advantage is that it also considers the emerging markets. It happens because developing countries can enjoy multiple benefits by investing into the emerging markets. Additionally, making purchases in the emerging markets is much easier. It simply means that emerging companies can capture moving cash into attractive international entities. Another advantage is that the Emerging markets investments also help to allure faster growth in the economy. The company should realize that foreign international securities play a vital diversification part in the business. Adding these equities into the company’s portfolio will achieve fixed incomes and reduce volatility. Another benefit or advantage is diversification’s attributes to domestic market equity within the foreign market equity. Benefits of adding international securities to pension portfolios is that most investors have future return expectations as one of the key attributes, the investors are more comfortable with an allocation of investments from home markets. TMP should realize that risks can be assessed and calculated from historic fund tracking of errors in the benchmark policing. This risk is related to negative and uncertain effects or impacts for an uncertain potential future. The other problematic approaches on how to handle exceeding funds policies. It may result to high volatile conditions in the market. The market transient conditions are one of the causes that conform to policies against future risks. The other common risk is the time horizon risk. This risk is related to portfolio a measure towards such risks. It is important to no0te that 100 % of all investment portfolios have risks that is not seen.

Investment Pension Management

Visible and Invisible Investment Risks

Visible and invisible risks can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. This is because it can be corrected early to ensure high returns or cause failure if not identified on time. It is evident that investment policies from pension or security funds mostly do not take the illiquid risks into consideration. Most companies prefer other investments like equity, capital venture and other real estate investments, which is not popular, and, therefore, is appropriately ignored for the purpose of risks assessment. It has been argued that Financial Crisis globally, has been centered in such securities. The risks that are not visible or that are invisible are acuter as compared to other risks. It is because these risks are not easily recognized. In this case, the company should put more effort into ensuring that the risk assessment takes place accurately and appropriately. The best strategy or key that is used to control invisible risks this risk are to develop risk assessment plans from international, notional instead of using market security values which are derivative from investments. For instance, consideration of  $10 Million strategy for US security equity portfolio run by asset manager s from external quarters that is related to the purpose of the asset appropriator to plan for $50 million of number of index contracts futures. In Consideration to the assessment risk exposures on security funds, the international security trading is successfully completed. The security market is made up of multiple exposures to risks that are related to security funds increasing from many investment factors.

For TMP to successfully implement the various securities investing options, the company should consider integrating strategies for the implementations. These may include:

Portfolio Management Strategies

As a portfolio manager, I realize that challenges and changes are constant especially in complex and volatile international market. In this case, TMP is presented with many different opportunities in the emerging international markets, hedge funds, real estates, derivatives and many other types of investments. However, the company needs to come up with portfolio management strategies to ensure that they stay on top of the investment game. It simply means that the portfolio management strategies will help the company to monitor and shape investments in order to generate high returns and expose excessive investment risks. The portfolio management strategies are related to examination of fundamental issues related to investment effectiveness and risks reduction. The portfolio gives balanced a view on international markets, institutions, theories, practical applications and other principal concepts. The company should implement active management. This is because active management will ensure constant monitoring of the security investments processes.

Viability of Market Exposures

International security Portfolio management should have market exposures on assessments in terms of standard deviation and volatility. The performance is measured through marketing indices and error tracking. The portfolio may also be compared with other managerial portfolios in the market to ensure that the function objectives in the company are similar. Finally, the adjusted risk model may be introduced. The other effective strategy in portfolio management is the attribution of performance. It involves carrying out of the analysis on the overall manager performance from a financial point of view.

Asset Allocation Strategy

Most times assets allocation can be compared to placing eggs in one bag. It simply means that assets allocation is a single investment or security, which could cause the whole investment package getting, phased out in case the portfolio is not successful or lacks in specific details. In this case, diversification is appropriate to help in investment spreading in order to reduce risks. Assets allocation system is, therefore, an investment system that diversifies investments from securities and spreads the investments into cash, bonds and stocks. The investment allocation can account for more than 92% of return viability in relation to total holdings in the portfolio. The reason for this is different classes of assets have distinct reactions, history and characteristics in the same conditions within the market. Categorizing the assets can carry out diversifying security investments strategically. Cash, bonds and stocks have equivalently fixed rates under multiple segments that help to provide a basis of diversification to maximize initial returns and, therefore, reduce risks. Fixed and cash rate equivalents contribute to the provision of investment category assets choices. These are the core requirements that guarantee and provide securities on principal investments. It uses the general consideration of providing moderate returns from lower risks. In this way, funds value is stable, and the investments get assured. To promote assets allocations the employees of the company, and the management should take responsibilities for the investment decision-making. The employees are responsible for information provision and promotion of asset allocations. It means that the employees must be sensitized and made aware of the best practices in strategic investments as an integral and vital part of the company.

Policies Pertaining To Hedging

Hedging is simply a strategic risk management policy that offsets or limits the loss probability from commodity or investments price fluctuations, securities or diverse currencies. It employs many techniques that involve opposite and equal market positions. This technique is utilized to protect the company’s investment capital against inflation effects through high investments of notes, bonds, and shares in securities. Hedge comes from multiple financial attributes known as instruments, which include insurance, swaps, stocks and contracts forwards. Hedging strategies include currency future contracts, money market currency operations, future interest contracts, forward exchange currency contracts and equity short straddles amongst many others. Headgeable risks are categorized into credit risks, commodity risks, currency risks, interest rate risks, volumetric risks, and equity and volatility risks. The company should, therefore, consider future hedge in the company.

Hedging will allow the company an opportunity to tap into untapped markets. It means that the company could venture into markets with natural prospects and resources to ensure fast economic security growth. Additionally, market frontier economies have the potential to offer the company many opportunities in different investment areas such as investing in other financially efficient markets. Policies pertaining to hedging also help to measure a company’s performance. The performance is measured through marketing indices and error trackings. The portfolio may also be compared with other managerial portfolios to ensure that the function objectives in the company are similar. Finally, the adjusted risk model may be introduced. Categorizing the assets can carry out diversifying security investments strategically. Cash, bonds and stocks have equivalently fixed rates under multiple segments, which help to provide a basis of diversification to maximize initial returns and, therefore, reduce risks. It is also virtually important to consider the emerging markets. It is because developing countries can enjoy multiple benefits by investing into the emerging markets. Additionally, making purchases in the emerging markets is much easier. The main reason and rationale for international investments are for diversification purposes and high pension returns. It is vital to note that foreign stocks are volatile as compared to other American stocks. In this way, addition of international stocks will expose the portfolio and reduce normal risks without attracting low demands.

Successful Investment Markets

The company should invest in successful investment markets. The markets should have the probability to provide and allow successful financial security investments. In this way, the company will be able to increase its investments in successful investment markets. Successful investment markets can be a guideline to the company of other successful companies around the globe. This will not only motivate the stakeholders but will also open up this company to participate in successful investments markets.


Adler, Michael, and Bernard Dumas. 1983. International Portfolio Choice and Corporation Finance: ASynthesis. Journal of Finance 38, pp. 925-84.

Bailey, Warren, and J. Lim. 1992. Evaluating the Diversification Benefits of the New Country Funds.Journal of Portfolio Management 18, pp. 74–80.

Bonser-Neal, C., G. Brauer, R. Neal, and S. Wheatley.1990.International Investment Restriction andClosed-End Country Fund Prices. Journal of Finance 45, pp. 523-47.

Chuppe, T., H. Haworth, and M. Watkins.1989Global Finance: Causes, Consequences and Prospects for the Future. Global Finance Journal 1, pp. 1-20.

Cooper, Ian, and EviKaplanis. 1994. Home Bias in Equity Portfolios, Inflation Hedging, and International Capital Market Equilibrium. Review of Financial Studies 7, pp. 45-60.

Errunza, Viliang, Ked Hogan, and Mao-Wei Hung. 1999. Can the Gains from International Diversification Be Achieved without Trading Abroad?.Forthcoming in Journal of Finance.

Eun, Cheol, Richard Kolodny, and Bruce Resnick. 1991. Performance of U.S.-Based International Mutual Funds. Journal of Portfolio Management 17.pp. 88-94.

Fama, Eugene, and W. G. Schwert. 2000. Asset Returns and Inflation. Journal of Financial Economics 5, pp. 115-46.

Lessard, D. 2000.World, Country and Industry Relationship in Equity Returns: Implications for RiskReduction through International Diversification. Financial Analyst Journal 32.pp.22-28.

Longin, Francois, and BruneoSolnik. 1987. Is the Correlation in International Equity Returns Constant?: 1960-1990. Journal of International Money and Finance 14, pp. 3-26.

Merton, R. 1997.A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information. Journal of Finance 42 (1987), pp. 483-5 10

下载关于金融专业essay的范文:Investment Pension Management

art essay(艺术类essay)代写案例



Writing the art essay can be an interesting task if you like the topic to write about. On this page you will find an example of this type of essay. This sample gives you an opportunity to read an extract from the art essay created by our experienced writer. The example shows what aspects can be reflected in your work.

Art is a form of social consciousness, the spiritual part of human culture, a particular kind of practical and spiritual development of the world. In this regard, the art includes a group of varieties of human activity that refer to the specific and artistic reproduction of reality: painting, music, theater, and fiction. In the 13th-14th centuries the medieval art of Western and Central Europe, especially the church and civic architecture, reached its development. The word “gothic” comes from the East Germanic barbarian tribe that inflicted a mortal blow on the Roman Empire. During the Renaissance the medieval art was called gothic because it seemed rude and barbarous to people of that time. However, the Goths do not have any relation to it.
Every era gave rise to the art relevant to the current terms, close and understandable for people of the time. In medieval times, the power of the church was so great that even the kings had to reckon with it. The Gothic masters usually used the bright colors and ideas generated by people’s imagination. Moreover, the influence of a more rational perception of the world, the ideology of the progressive tendencies of the time was stronger in the Gothic masters’ art than in the Romanesque. High vaults of cathedrals, stained glass windows, through which the light rays streamed, the solemn sound of the organ – all these elements of style impressed the human imagination and inspired the idea of the sanctity of the divine power.
Statues and pictorial images of saints were excessively elongated or severely truncated. At the time, artists did not know laws of perspective, and, therefore, the figures in their paintings appeared flat. Medieval masters often showed figures in unnatural postures and gestures in order to convey stronger religious feelings, such as the belief in God or repentance for sins. Indeed, many statues and pictorial images are strikingly expressive. Talented craftsmen managed to show what that they had seen in life.
In general, Gothic art reflects the deep and sharp contradictions of that era. It includes the vivid characteristic features of realism, a sense of humanity and religious rapture. In Gothic art the proportion of secular architecture increased. It became more diverse in purposes and richer in forms. In many cases, the unique art patterns of the Gothic style are created by medieval masters, whose names have not been preserved.
The church and religious character of culture of the medieval society was reflected in the style and purpose of works. For example, coins help to recreate the political map of the European Feudalism. Gold and silversmiths produced the unique church utensils decorated with filigree, semiprecious stones, and enamel. Besides, carved ivory was applied. All these different techniques were used to make plates for the altar, bowls for washing hands, candlesticks, processional crosses, and caskets.

Essay写作五步法则-How to Write an Essay in 5 Steps

​Learning to write an essay is a skill you will use throughout your life. The simpleorganization of ideas you use when writing an essay will help you write business letters, company memos, and marketing materials for your clubs and organizations. Anything you write will benefit from the simple parts of an essay:

  1. Purpose and Thesis
  2. Title
  3. Introduction
  4. Body of Information
  5. Conclusion

We’ll walk you through each part and give you tips on how to master the art of the essay.

If you’re writing a personal essay, you’ll find help here, too: Writing a Personal Essay.

Laptop and Coffee by Jupiterimages - Getty Images - Jupiterimages - Getty Images

1. Purpose/Main Idea

Before you can start writing, you need to have an idea to write about. If you haven’t been assigned an idea, it’s easier than you might think to come up with one of your own.

Your best essays will be about the things that light your fire. What do you feel passionate about? What topics do you find yourself arguing for or against? Choose the side of the topic you are “for” rather than “against,” and your essay will be stronger.

Do you love gardening? sports? photography? volunteering? Are you an advocate for children? domestic peace? the hungry or homeless? These are clues to your best essays.

Put your idea into a single sentence. This is your thesis statement, your main idea.

Check out Grace Fleming’s How to Choose an Essay Topic.

Writing by Comstock - Getty Images - Comstock - Getty Images

2. Title

Choose a title for your essay that expresses your main idea. The strongest titles will include a verb. Take a look at any newspaper and you’ll see that every title has a verb.

You want your title to make someone want to read what you have to say. Make it provocative.

Here are a few ideas:

  • America Needs Better Health Care Now
  • The Use of the Mentor Archetype in…
  • Who Is the She-Conomy?
  • Why DJ Is the Queen of Pedicures
  • Melanoma: Is It or Isn’t It?
  • How to Achieve Natural Balance in Your Garden
  • Expect to Be Changed by Reading…

Some people will tell you to wait until you have finished writing to choose a title. I find a title helps me stay focused, but I always review mine when I’m finished to ensure that it’s the most effective it can be.

Woman with laptop - stylish - by Cavan Images - Getty Images - Cavan Images - Getty Images

3. Introduction

Your introduction is one short paragraph, just a sentence or two, that states your thesis (your main idea) and introduces your reader to your topic. After your title, this is your next best chance to hook your reader. Here are some examples:

  1. Women are the chief buyers in 80 percent of America’s households. If you’re not marketing to them, you should be.
  2. Take another look at that spot on your arm. Is the shape irregular? Is it multi-colored? You could have melanoma. Know the signs.
  3. Those tiny wasps flying around the blossoms in your garden can’t sting you. Their stingers have evolved into egg-laying devices. The wasps, busying finding a very specific place to lay their eggs, are participating in the balance of nature.
Writing by Mark Hall - Getty Images - Mark Hall - Getty Images

4. Body of Information

The body of your essay is where you develop your story or argument. You have finished your research and have pages of notes. Right? Go through your notes with a highlighter and mark the most important ideas, the key points.

Choose the top three ideas and write each one at the top of a clean page. Now go through again and pull out supporting ideas for each key point. You don’t need a lot, just two or three for each one.

Write a paragraph about each of these key points, using the information you’ve pulled from your notes. Don’t have enough? Maybe you need a stronger key point. Do a little more research.

Help with writing:

6 Tips for Improving Your Writing
10 Resources for Improving Your Writing
5 Quick English Grammar Tips

Writing by Patagonik Works - Getty Images - Patagonik Works - Getty Images

5. Conclusion

You’re almost finished. The last paragraph of your essay is your conclusion. It, too, can be short, and it must tie back to your introduction.

In your introduction, you stated the reason for your paper. In yourconclusion, you want to summarize how your key points support your thesis.

By observing the balance of nature in her gardens, listening to lectures, and reading everything she can get her hands on about insects and native plants, Lucinda has grown passionate about natural balance. “It’s easy to get passionate if you just take time to look,” she says.

If you’re still worried about your essay after trying on your own, consider hiring an essay editing service. Reputable services will edit your work, not rewrite it. Choose carefully. One service to consider is Essay Edge.

Good luck! Every essay will be easier.


Accounting essay怎么写?accounting essay代写简介

Accounting essay怎么写

Accounting essay又称之为:会计学论文文章,是学会计的同学经常遇到的作业形式之一。那么accounting essay哪里找呢?代写留学生会计学作业又应该注意些什么?下面我们就来给大家做一些解答


下面是一篇accounting essay sample,是一篇关于企业社会责任的话题。

Question:What is corporate social responsibility (CSR) and what are its theoretical foundations? Why is it important to business? Find an example of an Australian company that appears to have made CSR a priority and explain the types of activities they engage in and quantify the cost of these activities. What possible specific benefits can they hope to receive from their CSR activities and are they realistic?


Within the business world, the prime motive of a corporate was profitability which means purely to make money and increase share value. However, in the last decade, as social expectations change, groups in society are increasingly demanding the company to pursue social and environmental responsibility other than just financial responsibility (Wetherly and Otter 2011). These groups known as stakeholders which include employees, suppliers, consumers, government and others that have an interest in the entity’s affairs (Birt et al 2010). This paper will firstly demonstrates what corporate social responsibility (CSR) is, its theoretical foundations, and why it is important to business; Secondly, by studying Corporate Responsibility Report of Target Australia, discusses the types and costs of activities the business engaged in; And finally, to talk about the benefits a company would receive from the CSR activities and the reality of gains.

Corporate social responsibility is inclusion the duty to the society and environment into business operations and eliminates actions that harm the public sphere (Thomas and Nowak 2006). Business should be conducted based on ethical values with respect to the harmony of society and well beings of community. Thus, apart from making profits, companies are responsible for the totality of their impact on public and planet (Catalyst Consortium 2002). The most widely accepted theory to support CSR is the stakeholder theory. It was initially stated by Edward Freeman as a concept of organizational management and business ethics that emphasize morals and values in managing an entity (1984).

Long-term viability of an organization may be enhanced by a responsible social policy, as the community recognizes the company to add value to improve the quality of daily lives (Macgregor 2006). According to the European Union Commission, the importance of CSR can be comprehended in two ways: from the perspective of entity itself and the viewpoint of benefits of society as a whole (European Commission2006). Firstly, CSR, as the source of competitive advantage, is an important way to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises (Singapore Compact 2010). In order to encourage investment, some companies established corporate culture consistent with CSR which set a positive brand image and promote reputation in the industry. Moreover, the advantages may attract, retain and motivate talented employees to research and develop new products and services so as to meet demands of the community and solve social problems. (European Commission 2006). Secondly, if more ambitious enterprises take responsibility to the environment and society, the goal of achieving sustainable development will be earlier to reach (European Commission 2006). The most important social responsibility of an enterprise is to make the healthy development of the company, and to create more value to the society. A successful company will solve the unemployment problem; provide employee benefits as well as to pay government taxations. Government revenue will then be reinvested into the community to accomplish other corresponding social responsibilities.

Target Australia Pty Ltd, an Australian department store chain owned by Wesfarmers, can be an example which regards CSR as a priority in business practices and a transparently entity that disclosure Corporate Social Responsibility Report annually. A CSR report is defined as a released document that provides performance of the reporting entity in social, environmental and economic areas (Elkington 1997). This report consists of three parts: social responsibility initiatives, environmental responsibility initiatives and economic responsibility initiatives of the corporation (Target 2009). In the aspect of social responsibility, Target’s staffs and retirees volunteer hundreds of thousands hours of time and talent to help local nonprofit organizations. Besides, the company hires employees with diverse background in order to offer a selection of products in the store to fulfill wide-ranging tastes and demands of customers. A variety of pay and benefit plans are prepared for employees which is designed to help team members to achieve physical, emotional and financial well-being. Finally, Target ensure that products are manufactured comply with ethical and safety standards (Target 2009). In the aspect of environmental responsibility, Target is endeavor to be responsible for environment by using resources correctly, eliminating waste, offering organic and eco-friendly products, influencing suppliers and consumers to embrace sustainable practices (Target 2009). In the aspect of economic responsibility, to generate a high return to shareholders, the company carefully chooses every site of new stores; innovative marketing to increase profitable sales; closely controlled inventories and expenses. Moreover, a well-defined corporate governance strategy and ethical procedures to ensure the effectively and efficiently business operate, with consistent and transparent financial disclosure (Target 2009). In the light of CSR report, 5 percent of total income is used to sever the society which indicates over 3 million dollars every week uses to fulfill the responsibility to the community and environment (Target 2009).

It is believed that entities act with social responsibility because there are ultimately a number of benefits to its profit (Birt et al 2010). Firstly, ethical business behaviors of companies are the clear advantages in convincing investors. Some studies have revealed that an increasingly number of investors would prefer companies with strong CSR programs (Leslie 2007). CSR is regarded as a signal of the company’s long-term potentials. Secondly, CSR improves the company images, helps customers view Target positively and strengthens brand loyalty (Macgregor 2006). Thirdly, CSR contributes to recruit and retain employees (Arun 2004). Staffs are more willing to work in a safe and healthy environment and in a company with humanistic care. These benefits are realistic and obvious. Links between the welfare of society and the welfare of the corporation is recognized by firms more increasingly (Leslie 2007).

In conclusion, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is neither a slogan nor a strategy in public relations or advertising, it is formed during business growth. Through CSR, in cooperation with stakeholders on voluntary basis, a company can reconcile economic, social and environmental ambitions (European Commission 2006).


Arun,S. 2004, ‘China CEOs awaken to benefit of CSR’, Media: Asia’s Media and Marketing Newspaper, 2 July, viewed 30 April 2011, < >

Birt,J., Chalmers,K., Byrne,S., Brooks, A., and Oliver, J. 2010, Accounting: Business reporting for decision making, 3rd Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.

Catalyst Consortium.2002, What is corporate social responsibility?, Washington, DC.

Edward,F. 1984, Strategic Management: A stakeholder approach, Boston Pitman, Boston.

Elkington,J. 1997, Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business, Capstone, Oxford.

European Commission. 2006, Communication on CSR, Brussels

Leslie,M. 2007, ’Why future leaders should embrace fair trade and corporate social responsibility?’, Futurics, vol.31, no.1, pp.52-55, viewed 30 April 2011, ProQuest Central.

Macgregor,R. 2006, ’ what is Corporate Social responsibility?’, Finweek, 12 January, p.29.

Singapore Compact, 2010, What is CSR?, Singapore, viewed 30 April 2011, <>

Target Australia Pty Ltd. 2009, 2009 Corporate responsibility report, Sydney.

Thomas, J. and Nowak, M. 2006, Corporate social responsibility: A definition, Curtin University of Technology, viewed 30 April 2011,

Wetherly, P. and Otter, D. 2011, In the business environment, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

代写留学生会计作业和Accounting essay,Bonrun很乐意帮您提供此类的服务。因为我们这类的活儿也接的最多,口碑也是最好的。无论您是essay代写还是assignment代写,我们都能为您匹配到出色写手,而这些写手都是和您的专业相对应的。

Definition Essay代写哪里有?

Definition Essay是什么意思Definition Essay代写哪里找

Definition Essay也称为文章定义,是对学生总结、统计、分析等能力综合水平测试的一类型文章。Definition Essay代写该怎么写呢?我们将在下列的文章中给大家详细解答:

关于Definition Essay是什么?

A definition essay seeks to elaborate and explain a given concept or physical object. It could provide information that everyone agrees on or explain a concept that causes contradiction of the definition, the concept on which people have different views. Definition essay is a useful tool in offering varied issues of the same topic; it does not zero in on one definition of the topic, and rather it provides different options. The definition of an essay is provided through intensive research from both primary sources and secondary sources.


Controversial essays provide information on topics such as love that bring about intensive debates; a love definition essay provides detailed definitions from different sources. Such essays provide a personal viewpoint of a given subject matter, written by individuals who have deep knowledge on a given topic. They provide the author’s ideas and, therefore, are not entirely conclusive on what the definition of the said topic is. A love definition essay does not necessarily provide the reader with the true meaning of love; the reader has to understand that what they read is the opinion of the sole author and not a proven fact.


Another topic that needs the use of definition essays is the idea of whom or what a hero is, a hero definition essay offers the author’s opinion on what a hero is. Heroes have different definitions in the society today, from a small age; people have different ideas of how heroes represent in the society. A hero definition essay provides the authors with the chance to express their own opinions of what a hero represents to them, just as in love, a hero essay does not provide conclusive information on the term hero.


Writing a definition essay requires that the author have knowledge on the topic of discussion, for one to write an extended definition essay, they must have prior knowledge on the subject matter. For example, a psychologist can participate in writing a definition essay on the subject of psychology but they are limited on writing an extended definition essay on medicine.


When writing a definition essay, the writer should select a topic they personally feel needs more clarification, and they have the knowledge needed to provide this clarity. The second step to writing this type of essay involves the writer choosing a topic they have knowledge of and can provide the needed examples to provide clarification. Definition of an essay requires that the author provide academically proven information; it should however be conversant with their personal belief systems. The concept applies to the extended definition essays too.


The writer or author should not select a topic that needs broad information than what is available to them. On the other hand, the topic should not be limited to the author; the intention here is to provide thorough information for the reader. If a topic is too broad, the writer ends up writing irrelevant information, when it is too narrow, the information does not achieve it intended goal.



Definition Essay写作详解

Choose a term that you are interested in defining. There are many ways of defining any term, so you can write several different types of definition essays: a historical definition examines the various meanings that a word has had over an extended period of time; a negative definition tells readers both what the term means and what it does not mean; a restrictive definition limits your discussion by telling readers exactly which angle you will be examining or how you will be using the term; an objective definition informs readers by emphasizing the term itself; a subjective definition persuades readers by focusing on your opinions or perceptions of the term – the way you want to define it. Think about what type of definition will work best for your audience. (将所选对象限定一个标准或表述范围)
Gather information about the term that you have chosen. Decide what type of details and examples that you want to include in your essay.(举例,类比,突出限定对象)
Develop a thesis statement that clearly states the term that is being defined and your method of definition. Remember that a thesis should be only one sentence and should let the reader know exactly what to expect from your essay.(突出主题)
Write an introduction that orients the reader to what will follow in the essay. The thesis should also be listed in the introduction.(围绕主题方向展开介绍)
Write well-developed body paragraphs that support the thesis. Be sure to fully define your term by using the definition method that you have outlined in your thesis.(围绕主题拓展)
Organize the body in a way that best works with your method of definition – chronologically, emphatically, visually and others.(从各个方面分析主题)
Write a conclusion that sums up the essay’s main points and restates the thesis. Make it clear in the conclusion exactly what you want the reader to do with this information. Why should readers care about this term and its definition?(围绕主题综合,提出结论,总结全文)


Follow 4 rules for a good definition:


1. Don’t use the words “when” “where”, giving a definition. A common practice is to define noun with noun, adjective with adjective and so on.

2. Remember, that definition is not a repetition.

3. Use simple and well- known term in your explanation.
4. Point out the distinguishing features of the term.

以上就是关于definition Essay定义的的一些解释和写作方法,希望能为大家在自己写留学生论文的时候能提供一些帮助。







出国留学难免少不了写essay,而常见的Essay代写开头方式有哪些呢?applycation essay 开头如何写?这个就需要技巧了。今天我们就给大家介绍一些常见的essay代写开头的方式。希望给正在写essay的你提供一些帮助。以下就是essay写作的七种开头方式,你可以仔细琢磨一下。

标准型的MBA Essay开头涵盖了以下几方面内容:人物,事件,时间,地点,原因和形式。这种写法很像新闻写作中的六个W,它使读者对于文章即将涉及哪些内容有一个清晰的印象。其中最标准的就是概括性的开头,而最普通的概括性开头往往就是重复一遍问题: “While I have had many opportunities to serve in the capacity of a leader in both my personal and professional lives, there are two occasions that I feel clearly demonstrate my managerial potential.” “There are two individuals who have deeply shaped my professional thinking.” “My most important cross-cultural experience is related to the fifteen months I spent in Thailand as a teacher of Economics and Business in a Cambodian refugee camp.”
这种开头意在使读者大吃一惊,从而引发Essay阅读者他们的阅读兴趣。如:”Recently, I was trapped on a ledge more than 300 feet above the ground when an unexpected snow storm hit while I was rock climbing.” “During my senior year in college, my father was diagnosed with terminal skin cancer.”
动作型开头则一开始就把MBA ESSAY的读者带入某一行为之中,它尤其适合需要节省空间的短文章以及用故事作为开头的叙述型/描述型文章。如:”I carried the puck up the left wing and couldn’t find a team-mate as I reached the offensive zone.”
领导型的开头在文章的一开始就给MBA Essay读者一个对于作者的某个领导职能的深刻印象,这对于MBA申请是很重要的。这类文章旨在展现一个自信的、目标明确的申请人。在使用这类开头的时候,文章接下来的内容必须十分有力度,以支撑起这一形象。下面举例的三个开头出于同一篇文章,分别用于引导三个部分的内容。”During the summer before my senior year, I founded and managed a company that employed five people and grossed twenty thousand dollars.” (第一部分) “In my senior year at Harvard, I led our ECAC champion hockey team in points, becoming the first player to ever begin his career on the J.V. team and finish as the varsity’s leading scorer.” (第二部分) “I paid for the majority of my college education, while achieving Dean’s List every semester, spent forty hours each week participating in a Division 1 athletic program, worked ten to fifteen hours each week to help defray tuition costs, and also maintained a balanced social life.”
这种开头向读者传达一个事实或信息,而这一事实或者与你的文章的主题有关,或者传达了关于你的某种信息。”Technological innovation is occurring at an ever-increasing pace.” “Six months ago, my church implemented a new organizational structure in which all the various church functions were consolidated under the responsibility of one of ten different committees.”
如果你选择一句引语作为开头,你最好选择不同寻常的、深奥的、有趣的、或者晦涩的引语,而且这个引语不能太长。你选择的引语应该包涵你希望向读者表达的某个意思。不要使用谚语或者类似的陈词滥调,也不要尝试在你的文章里对这句引言作出解释。录取委员会更感兴趣的是你如何对这句谚语作出反应,而不是直白的解释。下面就是一个引言式开头的示例:”‘It’s in my blood, it’s in my veins, I am the ghost who entertains.’ — Peter Weiss, Wie dem Herrn Mockinpott das Leiden ausgetrieben wird”
这种开头把读者引入MBA Essay当中的一场对话之中。它可能是真实的对话,也可能只是你的想法的一个小小片断:”Stop foolin’ around, old boy. How would an MBA help you? Better get on with your career.” “First-rate skiing, the Winter Carnival, a bucolic setting, Ivy League football, and a great career at the end of it all? Who wouldn’t want a Tuck MBA?”











The times we are living now features innovation and originality. Engineering is a profession that links various inventions to common people. Needless to say, with its vital role in the society this profession demands its practitioners to be technically, and even scientifically, competent, as engineers are developing new products, producing them and/or serving their clients with their expertise. However, technical expertise alone does not make a good engineer, and the professional morality and responsibility of engineers, which has long been neglected in university education, is also an indispensable component. Didier (1999) approaches to the issue of engineering ethics from a historical perspective, comparing the ethical professional engineering practices in the United States, Germany and France, and mentions the absence of ethical education in engineering curricula. Johnston et al (2000), on the other hand, touch upon “the social impact and international and global nature of engineering practice and outline the necessary educational changes to meet the social and ethical challenges of this profession. This paper briefly ticks off some fundamental knowledge of engineering ethics, and tries to discuss some academic practices in university engineering education that are conducive to or hindering the development of engineering ethics.

Engineering Ethics
According to Davison and Kock (2004), “professional Ethics concerns one’s conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work.” There are a great many professional bodies throughout the world that put forward important institutionalized “codes of conduct and codes of practice” for their members to follow. In many counties, medical ethics, legal ethics and business ethics are repeatedly discussed by the public and even regarded compulsory to the practitioners. Engineering ethics has also been becoming an increasing concern over the past decades, during which the world witnessed some momentous events like stratospheric ozone depletion, cloning technology, the Challenger disaster and so on, which are closely related to the issue of engineering ethics. Professional bodies of engineering like the US professional engineering associations, the German Association of Engineers and the Institution of Engineers, Australia, are getting more active. Engineering codes of ethics vary by different cultures and might still remain controversial. Nevertheless some codes are believed to be universal. For the sake of their professional integrity, honor and dignity, an engineer is expected to use their knowledge and skills to enhance human welfare; be honest, loyal and impartial serving the public, their employers and clients; improve their professional competence and prestige; and work under the guidance of their professional societies. An example could be where an engineer, who knows the performance and using precautions of certain products perfectly well, does his best to overvalue the performance of some goods but hesitates to provide the precautions before potential customers so as to get them into buying the products. What they bear in mind is only their corporate interest and their personal benefits, as is against their professional integrity and impartiality. Examples like this one that concerns knowledge sharing are numerous. In a journal editorial, Elliot (2004) addresses the issue of knowledge and information sharing and enumerates a great many cases in corporate setting that make “the difference between a healthy company and a company that will have to lay off people or closes its door altogether – which could end up being decidedly grave for individuals, families and the community.”
Ethics in University Education
The challenges of engineering ethics in the professional work these days that engineering ethics is becoming a new discipline that holds its place in university education. There is growing expectation by specialists (Chubin et al 2005, Davison and Kock 2004) and the public at large to enhance professional ethics education in universities by incorporate it into improved academic curriculum. Symposia, workshops and seminars could be arranged to promote professional engineering ethics. They believe professional morality and responsibility should be introduced early to engineering majors. It is also a professional must for engineering graduates to familiarize themselves with engineering code of ethics prior to being practitioners. However, knowledge of right and wrong is at most half of the battle. A good engineering professional also needs other qualities like self-discipline, conscientiousness, integrity and professional dignity, which can hardly be acquired by simple indoctrinization or sheer brainwashing. Johnston et al (2000) advocates practice-focused ethics in engineering education for that the professional ethics being accepted well, it could be made an indispensable part of their academic practice. In universities, engineering majors, undergraduates or postgraduates, are doing experiments, conducting researches, handling projects and writing papers to conclude their practical work. By handling these practical tasks, they learn to establish their professionalism by applying their knowledge to practice and developing some practical skills. Meanwhile they are also learning to adopt their way of thinking, their mindset and their attitude as a real professional. In other words, they are also establishing their professionalism by developing those indispensable professional qualities like self-discipline, conscientiousness, integrity and professional dignity in practices they are most likely to continue after their graduation. With these qualities being part of their professional habit and value, they are bound to be upheld and advanced by those engineering graduates in their professional career. Among the above mentioned academic virtues, there is one point that is most often than not time and again repeated here and there, and could never be overvalued. That is academic honesty. Academic honesty is relevant to professional code of ethics in that it practices integrity which is valued by employers and a professional must demonstrate while working. Academic honesty and integrity is important also in that practicing academic dishonesty means overcoming academic dishonesty. Academic misconducts such as plagiarism, collaboration and multiple-submission are rather common and induced by many factors: lagging behind in coursework, working too many hours, meeting emotional and healthy issues and so on. Thus, a university student is always tempted to misconduct academically. Their success in adhering to their honesty and integrity by dealing with pressure, balancing work and study, putting emotional matter reasonably will help them adopt correct attitude and develop useful skills that are also needed in their future work. Plagiarism, using other people’s words or ideas or research findings with proper citation, is among the most common academic misconducts. Proper citation and referencing mean acknowledging other people for their innovation and originality, which are particularly valued in this knowledge-based era.
Universities are places where the students are trained to be real professionals like engineers. The future engineers are expected to be made ethically qualified and technically. Thus professional morality and responsibility should be introduced to engineering students, and engineering code of ethics needs to be infused to these future professionals. What is even more vital to establish professional ethics is for the engineering students to develop their professional integrity, honesty, dignity, self-discipline, conscientiousness and so on through appropriate academic practice. Whenever doing research, writing paper or handling other academic tasks, they should stay off academic misconducts like plagiarism. Adhering to academic honesty means overcoming some temptations and adopting right attitude and useful skills that are essential to establishing their professionalism. Therefore, it is justifiable to say that “the development of ethic professional engineering practice begins with the development of appropriate academic practice in university engineering education.”
Chubin, D.E. et al. (2005). Diversifying the Engineering Workforce. Journal of Engineering Education Davison, R. and Kock, N. (2004). Professional Ethics [online]. : Association for Information Systems Available from: [accessed 2 April 2006].
Didier, C. (1999). Engineering ethics in France: a historical perspective. Technology in Society.
Ellit, M. (2002). Knowledge is Power. IIE Solutions
Johnston, S. et al. (2000). Practice-focused ethics in Australian engineering education. European Journal of Engineering Education.
Robert A.Peterson et al(1997) Exploring the implications of the Internet for Consumer marketing . Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.
Philip Kotler (2006) Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ; Pearson Prentice Hall.
Prashant Banerjee, Dan Zetu.(2001) Virtual manufacturing. New York ; Chichester : Wiley.
Varey, Richard. Lewis, Barbara R.(2000)Internal marketing : directions of management. London : Routledge.
Piercy, Nigel.(2002) Market-led strategic change : a guide to transforming the process of going to market. Oxford :Butterworth-Heinemann


narrative essay英语记叙文写作要点

narrative essay是什么意思?其实就是我们常见的英文记叙文的简称。我相信很多同学对于谢记叙文不陌生吧,在中学阶段我们或多或少接触过记叙文的写作。今天我们就给大家总结和归纳一下。

narrative essay一般是作者针对某一件事的叙述,表达其个人观点。

The first important thing to remember about a narrative essay is that it tells a story. The author may write about

an experience or event from his or her past
a recent or an ongoing experience or event
something that happened to somebody else, such as a parent or a grandparent
The second important thing about a narrative essay is that the story should have a point. In the final paragraph, the author should come to an important conclusion about the experience that has just been described.

Read this sample narrative essay, and then read the notes below.

The sample essay begins with a general statement, “Learning something new can be a scary experience.” This statement introduces the subject of the essay, which is a particular learning experience that the author had. The use of “I” in the essay indicates that what is being described is a personal experience.
The essay is essentially a story about something that happened. The author gives sufficient details about the people, place, and events so that the reader gets a clear idea of how the author feels about them. In the essay, the author “stood timidly” and the teacher “smiled” and was “patient.” These words indicate the author’s fears and the sense of security provided by the teacher who helped the author get over her fear.
In the final paragraph of the essay, the author reflects on the larger meaning or importance of the experience described. The author concludes that learning to swim has helped her to feel more confident about herself in other new situations. The idea that self-confidence comes from conquering your fears is something that all people can relate to. This is the point of the story.
The essay is well-organized. After the introduction, the author describes the experience as it happened in time — going to the pool the first day, having the first lesson, and the result of the subsequent lessons. The author might have chosen, however, to talk about the things she learned in order of their importance or difficulty.
The writing in an essay should be lively and interesting. Try to engage the reader’s interest by adding details or personal observations. Sharing personal thoughts and details invites the reader into author’s world and makes the story more personal and more interesting.




  语言学家认为,词汇与文体紧密相关。会计英语作为ESP(English for Special Purpose专门用途英语)中的一个重要方面,属于一种正式、实用的文体。在会计实务中,它的词汇必须正式、严谨、专业、简易、直接。这决定了会计专业英语词汇有着很强的特征。俗话说知己知彼,百战不殆,掌握会计英语词汇必须首先了解他们的特点。下面笔者就从七个方面分析了会计专业英语词汇所具有的特征,使学习者能够更好地了解会计英语专业词汇。
  会计是一门专业性强,有自己独立的一套理论体系和实践流程的学科,其涉及到的词汇有比较强的专业性。这一点与EGP(English for General Purpose普通用途英语)相比有很大不同。对于初学者来说,感觉词汇比较生僻、难度大,学习门槛较高,这的确是需要学习者去克服的一个重要困难。例如fair value这个英语词汇,其汉语翻译是公允价值。fair value 的英文定义是:Fair value is a rational and unbiased estimate of the potential market price of a good,service,orasset.而公允价值的中文定义是:在公平交易中,熟悉情况的交易双方自愿进行资产交换或债务清偿的金额。熟悉情况的买卖双方在公平交易的条件下所确定的价格,或无关联的双方在公平交易的条件下一项资产可以被买卖的成交价格。这种会计专业术语、词汇对于不了解相关会计知识和会计专业背景信息的学习者来说杀伤力很大,比较难以理解,容易使初学者产生畏难情绪。
  所谓词汇的单一性,是指在某一个学科领域内,一个术语只表达一个特定的意思,反过来,同一个意思只用一个特定的术语来表达。在会计领域,这种词义的单一特性显得尤为明显。例如discount rate指贴现率,straight linemethod指直线折旧法,accrual basis指权责发生制,fixed assets指固定资产等。这些专业词汇和术语的意义及解释都是固定的、单一性的,没有其他的解释。这与EGP中一词多意、一意多词的情况完全不同。
  所谓术语的对义性是指词语所表示的概念在逻辑上是一种矛盾或关联。在会计专业领域,这种对义性的词语很多。例如:insourcing/outsourcing~ 自制/外购;accrual basis/cash basi 责发生制/收付实现制;trade deficit/tradesur1)lur 贸易逆差/贸易顺差;wholesale/retai卜批发/零售;net weight/gross weigh卜一净重/毛重;premium/discount–升水/贴水;assets/liabilities-资产/负债;inflation/deflation一通货膨胀,通货紧缩;debidcredit__借方,贷方;appreciation/depreciation一升值/贬值;increase/decreas 一增JJn/减少;fixed assets/current assetr 固定资产,流动资产;等等。在使用复式记账法的会计领域,这样的术语对异性特征普遍存在。这个特征对于学习者来说可以善加利用。在学习会计专业英语术语时可以利用对比联想的方法,举一反三,将一个词语的矛盾词、关联词、对应词一并记忆,提高学习单词术语的效率,从而事半功倍。
  在使用词缀构成的单词中,一般前缀可用来改变单词的含义;后缀可用来改变单词的词性。构成会计英语词汇常用的前缀有:non一表示非、无、不,如noncurrent assets一非流动资产,noninterest bearing not 不带息的票据,nonoperating revenues and expenses-营业外收人和费用;un-“表示不、无、非,]/gunrecorded-未入账的,uncollectib1 一不可收回的;pre-表示前、先、预,~13prepaid-预付,preferred stock优先股;re-“在动词及派生词前,表示再、又、重设,~11reinstate—重建,repurchase—购回,refund一退款;构成会计英语词汇常用的后缀有一ment,一tion,一ship,一or,一able,~flretirement一兑付,bankstatement__银行对账单,appropriation-分拨,distribution-分配,sole proprietorship-独资、独资企业,partnershi伙、合伙企业,creditor一债权人,debtor债务人,accountspayable应付账款,accounts receivabl 应收账款。
  一般而言,英式会计词汇和美式会计词汇大体上保持一致,但是在一些具体会计科目的表达上,两者之间还是有很多不同之处的。比如stock在英式英语中表示存货,在美式英语中却是股票的意思;英式英语中的股票使用的是share,美式英语表示存货使用的是inventory。还有,英式英语中表示销售收入使用的是turnover,而美式英语中使用的是sales;应收账款在英式英语中使用的是debtors,在美式英语中使用的是accounts receivable;应付账款在英式英语中使用的是creditors,在美式英语中使用的是accounts payable;损益表在英式英语中使用的是profit and loss account,在美式英语中使用的是income statement;留存收益在英式英语中使用的是company reserve,在美式英语中使用的是retainedearnings;毛利润在英式英语中使用的是trading profit,在美式英语中使用的是gross profit;盈余在英式英语中使用的是rest,在美式英语中使用的是surplus。
  使用缩略词是会计英语词汇的又一个特征。在我们阅读会计英语资料时,会发现有部分词汇使用缩略词的现象。这主要是因为缩略词简洁、意义准确、使用便利。缩略词的表现形式很多,但主要有两种:一是首字母缩写词;二是截短词。所谓首字母缩写词,顾名思义,就是将几个英文单词的首字母连在一起,但按照英语的习惯,应该是大写字母。例如:GAAP:Generally Accepted Accounting Principles公认会计准则;CFO:Chief Financial O伍cer一首席财务官;FIFO:fistin,first ou卜一先进先出分步成本法;FASB:FinancialAccounting Standards Boand一财务会计准则委员会;GAAS:General Accepted Auditing Standards一公认审计准则;VAT:Value Added Tax__增值税;等等。另外,为了提高阅读和书写效率,在会计英语里,经常出现将一个单词截短的现象,例如:Acc.t是指Account—账户;Allow.是指Allowance一备抵;Ba.L是指Balance余额;Beg.是指Beginning期初;Cap.是指c印ital一资本;等等。虽然会计英语词汇中有使用缩略语的情况,但整体来说,数量相对较少。由于会计专业文体的正式性、专业性、准确性和严肃性,缩略语的使用范围还是极其有限的。




从某种意义上讲,广告就是广告主把各种商品信息呈现给公众,让他们接受信息,成为某种商业信息的拥有者、消费者 (何修猛2002)。广告除了有帮助消费者认识商品的作用外,还有诱发消费者感情,引起购买欲望,促进消费行动的心理功能,以及给消费者以美感享受的美学功能。那么,广告怎样才能尽可能地让公众更快、更多、更加印象深刻地获得广告商希望呈现出来的商品信息呢?换句话来讲,广告商如何通过其广告语言引起公众消费者强烈的反应呢?西方广告学中有一个广告文案的创作的原则叫AIDA,其含义是:A=attention,I=interest,D=desire,A=action。


由于英语是国际商务中的通用语言,在国际商务中普遍使用。经过长期发展, 商务广告也逐渐从英语家族中分离出来,形成一种独立的语体,尤其在英语的词汇、句法、修辞等方面具有独特的语言特征。那么,英语商务广告是怎样在语言上实现广告文案创作公式中的要求和目标的。本文将从词汇、句法、修辞层面等方面对英语商务广告的语言特征进行分析,力求挖掘出成功广告案例中的语言共性。




(1)Romantic,Mysterious,Italian.(浪漫而神秘的意大利酒。)(2)Cleanest with longlasting moisture for lustrousshine.Enriched Por Vitamin formula tames frizziness for asleek,healthy look.Leave hair silky,shiny,touchably soft.(潘婷洗发水广告1(3)Taste richer?meHow?more satisfying.(香烟广告)(4)We take the worlds greatest pictures. (照相机广告)上例中的斜体均为形容词,它们的使用为广告的效果增色了不少。A例中的酒广告犹为典型,没有别的词,只有三个纯形容词。广告商在推销减肥产品时,使用频率较高的形容词有:slender,tall,thin,delicate,fragile,dainty,minute,fine,tenuous等;而护发类广告则经常出现与发质相关的形容词如:soft,gentle,silky,mild,sparkling,glittering,flexible,glossy,smooth等等。这些形容词具有极强的鼓励性、说服性、诱导性和刺激性。


(1)Just do it.(尽管去做吧)耐克运动品牌广告只用了三个词就直接表达出了体育运动产品的特征,尽管去做,也就是说耐克产品会在消费者追求目标的同时提供最大的支持以助其达成梦想,所以等于告诉消费者去买吧。

(2)Toyota is setting the future in motion(丰田让未来运动起来).这则广告把丰田汽车的极佳的运动特点用动词 set?in motion表现出来了,并让人们对其未来充满希望。

(3)Come talk to animals睐和动物交谈).这是海洋世界游乐场的广告标题。其中come和talk两个都是动词。把它们并列放在了一起,且中间无连接词,这在正式规范的语句中是不允许出现的。但这是广告,为了节省成本,吸引人,作者有意这样,而且如此醒目。

(4)Oh,I see (哦,我看见了)!




(1)HEA H fnod store,same gd loc.13 yrs.这是一则商店转让广告,其中gd=good;loclocation;yrs=years。

(2)BabysitterGirl aged 16-20Hours:6pm to 9pm Mon,Thur.Fri82.50 per hourC a1lBobPaulTel5-923564这则招聘广告中使用了大量的大家熟悉的缩略词和符号,如:时间pm=下午;Mon=周一;Thur=周四;Fri=周五;$=美圆;Tel=电话号码。

4.杜撰新词广告商往往会绞尽脑汁创造新词、怪词,用来暗示广告产品的新颖、独特和非凡。由于顾客有时无法马上理解新词的意义,所以会在新词上停留很久去思考、玩味,这就达到了广告商的最终目的 吸引顾客的注意;当消费者猜出新词的意义时,他们会有种成就感,这就实现了广告的审美目的,例l:

(1)TWOGETHERThe ultimate all inclusive one price sun kissedholiday.(宾馆广告)Twogether 由two和together杜撰而来,意为两人结伴同往。

(2) C0MPUCESS0RIES a flew world?Yes!Wevejust coined it to describe those Data Processing Accessorieswithout which your computer cannot function well with fullefficiency。(电子产品广告)此广告中的eompueessories一词是由computer(电脑)和accessories(附件)两词拼凑而成。两词合并在一起表明生产商认为这款电子产品是电脑的不可缺少的一部分。

(3)Come to our Friuee.保汁广告)这则果汁广告中的Fruice是根据fruit(水果)和juice (果汁)用拼凑或按谐音,巧构出来的新词,标新立异,增强广告的记忆价值,使广告更具魅力。虽然新造词与原形词形态相异,但意义犹存。给人一种浑然天成、妙不可言的感觉。




(1) A diamond is forever.(钻石广告)(2)Something within you is Dior.(Dior化妆品广告1(3)Coke adds life.f可口可乐广告词)2.祈使句和疑问如果广告中全部都是用陈述句,那么读者很有可能仅仅被动地接受信息。而祈使句和疑问句却能使人从这种被动的心理状态中解脱出来。祈使句促使读者做某事,疑问句促使读者思考、回答问题。这两种句式都能使读者在心理上兴奋起来,使读者加深印象。f王估良、丁往道1987:262)。广告语言属于鼓动性语言,要通过语言规劝怂恿读者立即行动去购买宣传的产品,因而英语广告大量使用祈使句和疑问句。


(1)Keep in touch.(移动电话广告)(2)Be young.Have fun,Drink Pepsi.(Pepsi广告)(3)Buy one pair.Get one pair.这则买一送一的广告,采用的是两个祈使句,号召力大大强于这样的表达:Ifyou buy one,you can getone more free of charge.(4)Are you going grey too early?(乌发乳广告)有时还使用一句一答形式,使广告显得十分活泼,别具一格。例如:

(5)Who does your hair?I do it myself. 殳乳广告13.一般现在时现在时可以表示过去、现在、将来发生的过程和行为,具有持久性的固有特征。英语广告中广泛地使用现在时目的是让商品的特征带上了客观永恒真理的意味,适合广告语言的现实性和可靠性,也正是广告商所追求的理想。例如:

(1)Now brown rice is as convenient as it is good foryou. 品广告)(2) Centrum gives you more vitamins and mineralsthan any leading brand.(食品广告).三、语言修辞层面的特征英语广告的成功不仅与遣词造句有联系,而且同各种修辞手段的巧妙运用密切相关。广告主要以商业产品为主题。为了吸引更多的顾客,广告语言所传递的信息有可能是真实性信息,也有可能是非真实性信息,但一定会留给消费者广泛的想象空间。要使广告具有注意价值(Attention value)、记忆价值(Memoryvalue)、可读性(Readability)和说服力(Persuasive powe0,英语广告经常使用各种修辞手段来增强语言的艺术性和感染力。因而广告商在广告语篇中必定会使用各种修辞手法来描绘广告中的产品,获取更大的效益,例如:双关(Pun)、仿拟(Parody)、比喻、夸张等。


(1)Try our sweet corn.You11 smile from ear to ear.f你一尝就会吃了一穗又一穗,高兴得合不拢嘴。)短语from ear to ear(笑得合不拢嘴)中的ear


(2)From Sharp minds,come sharp products.f夏普产品,来自智慧的结晶。)这则着名的夏普产品广告运用了双关修辞。


(3)7 days without 7-up make one weak.f七天不喝七喜,人就没有力气。)这则七喜广告巧用7days对7-up而7days就是one week。one在这句广告里是不定人称代词,同时又是数词,weak和week则同音异义,这也是双关的一种。

2.仿拟仿拟(Parody)就是 种套用,即在模仿人们已经非常熟悉的表达形式。它套用人们熟知的某个谚语、格言、名句,使其产生一种新的意义,从而达到标新立异,加深印象的效果。

(1)Not all cars are created equa1.f不是所有的车都生来平等的。)这则广告套用了《美国独立宣言》中的Allmen are created equa1.(人人生来平等。)通过仿拟的手法让消费者强烈地感到此车的不凡。

(2)Where there is a way,there is a Toyota.f有路就有丰田车。)这则丰田汽车广告是套用了英语中最有名的一句谚语:Where there is a will,there is a way. (有志者,事竟成。)让人对广告商的智慧和产品的受欢迎留下深刻的印象。


(1)The inside story is leaking out.f里面的故事会慢慢泄露出来。)这是则婴儿纸尿布广告。广告里面使用的暗喻修辞手法把孩子尿尿的过程比喻成慢慢地讲故事,这过程很美妙是因为有婴儿纸尿裤。

(2)Featherwater(眼镜):Light as a feather.(轻如羽毛。)让人对眼镜的轻巧有直观的感受。


(1) 20% Discount on Ladies Spring collections.Its Going to Be A Mad March Here at Simpson Piccadily.f女士春装大折扣simpson Piccadily店将有一个疯狂的三月。)上面的服装打折的广告用mad一词来说明削价程度极大,达到了疯狂 的程度,多少带有夸张的成分在里面。

(2)Where there is a way,there is a Toyota.(有路就有丰田车。1这则广告里多少有点夸张的成分,但对消费者来讲这是产品的广受欢迎的体现,并表现出了生产商的理想和追求,间接地告诉消费者大家都喜欢的车一定是好车。









尽管我本人已经是一名拥有六年执业经验的作文导师,但我永远不发表自己那些未经过其他专业导师修改过的文章。尽管我的眼睛能够敏锐的发现别人文章中的“comma misuse”(断句)和“run-on sentences”(“一逗到底”)的问题,而当我审视自己的文章时,我发现我经常忽略我的文章中出现的这些现象。



一篇发表于“Journal of Research and Reading”的学术文章中提到,人们在编撰修改自己熟悉的文本和文章中错误的发生率往往是最高的。那么,这个世界上什么是你最熟悉的文本和文章呢?莎士比亚吗?还是上帝的箴言?




《Writing coach》的作者Devin Burglund曾经说过:“一名伟大的作家不可能同时也是一名伟大的编辑。” 为什么这样说呢?因为写作和修改编辑是两个完全不同的领域,尽管二者互相联系互相影响。作家的首要任务是将脑海中的想法与idea在纸上进行记录和陈述,而专业编辑者的首要任务则是在理解作家观点与想法的基础上,通过修改,编辑和校对使作家的文章能够更加的清晰无误。



一位专业的 编辑者能够透过你的文章倾听你内心的观点与想法,并把您内心的观点和想法带入到你的文章之中。就这点而言,所有的好编辑都是一部了不起的作品背后无名的英雄。通常编辑也经常是非常出色的作家。就如《哈利波特》的作者J.K Rowlin和著名作家Leo Tolsoy(列夫托尔斯泰)。



1. 写作与修改不要在同一天进行


2. 列一份关于你写作中常出现的问题的清单,然后按照你的清单来审视你的文章


3. 通过自动检查语法错误的程序来审查你的文章

许多写作软件,比如word,都带有automated grammar check的功能,这些功能能帮助你很好的发现和改正你文章中基础的语法与拼写错误。不过需要注意的是,这些程序只能辅助你发现一些平常的语法拼写错误,并不能帮助你更好的修改你的文章,也不能辅助你提高文章的逻辑和深层文法,因此使用这类软件来进行自我修改还是存在一定局限性,不如请一位专业的导师来帮助你编辑。

4. 大声的朗读你自己的文章

我常常使用这一方法来帮助别人或我自己修改文章,而这一做法常常让我的家人非常抓狂(^.^)。 我发现这个方法能让自己轻易发现文章中的错误与不足,同时大声的朗读你的文章也能够帮助你更好的捕捉到你写作时心中的观点和想法。

5. 尝试让你的同学或者朋友帮助你修改你的文章












5. 如果你是个非常容易紧张不安的人,那么在写作之前,你需要找时间提前模拟限时论文的场景。将你的闹表设置在45分钟,找一篇你课上有关的题目进行写作,让自己习惯限时论文的写作节奏。

6. 你可以在Spark Notes 和 Shmoop.com上找到常用的限时论文题目和素材,所以在进行写作前,你为何不去看一看呢?





理解你的topic之后,你需要给你的论文准备材料了。你需要给你自己一定的时间来整理你所掌握的关于这个topic的素材,包括你之前的那些准备和积累,这叫做“记忆开闸”(memory dump)。你需要剔除你脑海中那些无关的信息,保留那些对你的写作有利的素材部分。把你脑海中的这些内容写在一张纸上,然后将他们有序的进行整理,写成一个提纲。为你的提纲上的每一条内容都标上号码,然后从其中最为重要的一条开始准备下手,然后是其次重要的。



准备好了的你,现在下笔如有神!如果你前期准备充分,现在你会发现自己思路非常清晰,行文流水。拿到你的论文的提纲,是时候开始写作了。首先,你要先确定你文章的“thesis statement”,围绕你的thesis,你需要展开讨论—-找出支持他的论点和论据,进行写作。下面我将举一个例子来展示我是如何完成这一部分的。

我的“thesis statement”如下:

“In William Golding’s book The Lord of the Flies, Jack creates a mythical beast creature as a way to band the boys together under his oppressive leadership; this is similar to how the world leaders have used the alien invasion to control the Earth’s population through fear of a common enemy and the belief that oppression is necessary for safety.”


“In the book Lord of the Flies, Jack bands his group of boys together by creating a common enemy in the beast. This is similar to how the government has bound our nation together against our greater enemy, the aliens from the Andromeda galaxy. In both cases, having a common enemy has ignited a sense of solidarity and being “in it together.” Anyone who is not against the beast, or the aliens, can be considered an enemy to the cause.”


“The boys in the Lord of the Flies have never seen the beast, yet they are afraid of it. During an assembly of the boys, one of the Littluns says, “I was frightened… and I saw something moving among the trees, something big and horrid” (85). This echoes a recent news story where a woman recounted her meeting with an alien, and although she hadn’t actually seen it, she said she saw the shadow of one pass by her window.”