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美国Essay范文:The origin of historical materialism

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        The outline of Feuerbach is the cornerstone of Marx’s New World Outlook-“new materialism”. In the outline, Marx based on the new concept of practice, criticized the old materialism, including Feuerbach’s philosophy, and the limitation and the incomplete nature of all the old philosophies, emphatically expounded the Marxist practice view, opened the prelude of revolution in the history of philosophy, and laid a foundation for the establishment of “new materialism” world outlook. In the past more than 160 years, Marx’s important thought in the outline has always shone the brilliance of the truth, and has been an important ideological weapon for the proletariat and its party to understand the world, to transform the world and to carry out socialist revolution, reform and construction.

        “Outline” was written by Marx in the spring of 1845 for later research notes, Marx was not published in his lifetime. In the 1888, when Engels published the end of Ludwig feuerbach and German classical philosophy, to be published as an appendix, it is “invaluable as the first document to sprout the genius of a new worldview”, calling these notes “11 of Feuerbach’s outlines” and hence the name of the notes. The outline is the beginning and symbol of Marx’s systematic construction of “new materialism” world outlook.

        The main reasons for writing the outline are three points: first, in order to adapt to the development of the workers ‘ movement, to provide theoretical guidance for the proletariat, ideological weapons. In the early 1845, as a result of persecution by the German and French governments, Marx had to leave Paris for Brussels. In Brussels, Marx and Engels were among the workers and established extensive contacts with workers ‘ organizations. They gradually discovered that there were various bourgeois and petty-bourgeois socialist thoughts in the working class. The influence of the idealism of the youth Hegel on the working class continues to exist, and Feuerbach’s humanism has a great influence on the working class. It is one of the important reasons for Marx to write “outline” to liquidate these erroneous thoughts, especially to criticize Feuerbach theoretically and to provide scientific theoretical weapons for the proletariat. Second, to criticize the old philosophy of the past, to clarify the need for a new worldview. Feuerbach’s philosophy has played an important role in the transformation of Marx from idealism to materialism, but Feuerbach has not transcended the limitations of metaphysical materialism, especially in the history of idealism. Therefore, the paper expounds the difference between the principles of “neo-materialism” and Feuerbach’s old materialism, and becomes the key task for Marx to clarify the essence of “new materialism”. Third, in order to liberate philosophy from the Philosopher’s Den, it becomes the material force of the people to understand the world and to transform the world. The former philosophy is more to explain the world, and Marx believes that the function of “new materialism” is not only to explain the world correctly, but also to instruct the proletariat to transform the world through revolutionary practice, to change the unreasonable old system and to build a more reasonable social institution.

        The viewpoint of practice is the basic point of view which runs through the outline, each of which expounds the status and function of practice from different angles. First, the introduction of practice into the field of philosophy, a clear distinction between Marxism and idealism, the old materialist boundaries, expounded the Marxist philosophy and their fundamental differences; Secondly, the practice of the introduction of the field of knowledge, laid the basis of dialectical materialism epistemology, expounded the practice in human understanding of the important role; third, The introduction of practice into the field of social history, the realization of the revolutionary transformation of historical history, put forward the historical materialism.

        Old philosophy can not be based on practice to understand the real world of various problems, at best they can only provide the principles of the world to explain the world in one form or another, while Marx’s philosophy is based on practice, and discusses the difference between “new materialism” and old materialism from the aspects of Class foundation, social function and historical mission. This paper expounds the proletarian standpoint of “new materialism” and the historical mission of “Changing the World”. Marx’s new philosophy should not only explain the world theoretically, more important is to transform the world, it resorted to the practice of struggle, through the “Critical weapons” and “Weapons of criticism”, in the change of the old world to create a new world, reflecting the Marxist philosophy is different from all the essential characteristics of old philosophy, that is, the high degree of unity of practicality and class nature

        The basic significance of the outline in the history of Marxist philosophy is the first comprehensive and overall realization of the old philosophy of the theoretical criticism and success beyond, and the confrontation and systematic and complete construction of Marxist philosophy of scientific practice view, has great theoretical value. First, the outline has established the scientific practice view, has completely drawn the boundary with the idealism, the old materialism and the Feuerbach philosophy, has laid the theoretical foundation for the creation of the new World outlook of Marxism. Second, the outline lays the basic theoretical framework of Marxist philosophy and outlines its embryonic form. Third, the outline highlights the salient features of Marxist philosophy. Marxist philosophy is not only practical, but also has a clear scientific and revolutionary, which is different from all other philosophy of the essential characteristics.

        The basic viewpoint of “materialism of practical activities” expounded in the outline has strong vitality and important practical significance. First, the viewpoint of practice is the main line that we deeply understand Marxist philosophy. The viewpoint of practice is a red line running through Marxist philosophy, he not only constitutes the theoretical cornerstone of the complete view of practice, but also integrates the whole content of Marxist philosophy inside. The new government, with Mr. Xi as General Secretary, stressed the practical view of all the work of the party, in order to improve the ability of the masses to work under the new situation, the party’s mass line education practice, which is the main content of the people’s pragmatic and incorruptible, is focused on solving the strong problems of the masses. Second, adherence to practice is the only criterion for testing truth. Marx thinks, the person’s understanding is correct or not, in the final analysis only then can prove in the practice, there is no other way. As Mao Zedong said: “There is only one truth, and who has found the truth, does not rely on subjective exaggeration, but rely on objective practice.” Only the revolutionary practice of millions of people is the yardstick for testing truth. At present, our country is in the key period of socialist modernization, reform into the deep and critical period, social and government into the transition period, but also a prominent period of contradictions, to solve the problems faced by the contemporary China, adhere to the practice of testing the truth of the standards. Thirdly, the viewpoint of practice is an important methodology for us to understand and transform the world correctly. Practice is the basis of cognition, source, starting point and purpose, we should be based on practice, and actively participate in social practice, and profoundly understand the laws of things and society, all from the reality, theory with practice, seeking truth from facts, adhere to the mass line, to change the old world to create a better new world, so that the development of the results A communist society that truly realizes human freedom and all-round development.

        Therefore, earnestly studying the outline which is called “The origin of historical materialism” has very important theoretical value and practical significance for further guiding the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, achieving the goal of “two 100 years” proposed by General Secretary Xi Jinping and the “Chinese Dream” of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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