三月, 2018 - 留学生essay代写网

留学生论文写作没有突破?练练语法多样性!

如何写好文献综述
        很多留学生对自己的语法过于自信(毕竟初中高中几乎不停地在练语法单选题),随性地凭语感写句子,而忽略了语法中一个非常重要得分点:多样性!所以,今天在这里,Meeloun小编以一个小句子为例,以“费尽心机”的25种翻译方式,希望可以帮你找到各种语法结构之间的共性,下次在写留学生论文的时候不要捉襟见肘。

        所有的句子都以下面的这个内容为翻译对象:

        我们要采取措施,解决这个问题

        (一会翻译的时候,会根据不同句型的需求,适当增减一些信息,只求大体意思的切合即可。)

        ▍ 简单句:主动

        People need to take measures to deal with this issue.
        Governments are forced to propose a number of measures to prevent the situation from getting worse.
        (此处真正的主语“人”可以替换,措施不一定只能由人完成。)

        ▍ 简单句:被动1

        Measures should be taken to deal with this issue.
        Measures aimed at solving this issue should be taken.
        (此处真正的主语“人”可以省略,谁干的不重要。)

        ▍ 简单句:被动2
        This issue needs to be addressed by a series of effective measures.

        ▍ 简单句:there be

        There are some effective measures that can solve this issue.

        ▍ it作形式主语
        It is urgent that measures should be taken to address the issue.

        ▍ 并列句

        The issue needs to be dealt with, and we have to take measures immediately.

        ▍ 定语从句

        The government is introducing tougher measures to deal with the issue that is urgently needed to be addressed.

        ▍ 非限定性定语从句

        The situation is intolerable, which forces us to take measures immediately.

        ▍ 宾语从句

        The efficiency of dealing with the issue depends on how effective the measures are.

        ▍ 表语从句

        The aim of these measures is that the situation is effectively controlled.

        ▍ 同位语从句

        Governments need to make regulations that those who further worsen the current situation will be severely punished.

        ▍ 时间状语从句

        When we take measures immediately, the issue can be dealt with.
        The issue can be dealt with after we take effective measures.
        The issue can hardly be dealt with before we take effective measures.
        (强调前后顺序的话,after/ before 是不错的选择)

        ▍ 条件状语从句

        This issue can be effectively dealt with if we take more measures.
        The issue can hardly be dealt with if we do not take effective measures immediately.

        ▍ 结果状语从句

        Many people are taking measures, so the situation is getting much better now.

        ▍ 目的状语从句

        A number of measures are taken in order to deal with the situation.

        ▍ 原因状语从句

        Because the situation is getting worse, we have no alternative but to take drastic measures right away.

        ▍ 让步状语从句

        Although the situation is terrible, we need to take effective measures.

        ▍ so … that …如此以至于

        The condition is so serious that we have to take effective measures immediately.

        ▍ with 结构

        This issue can be solved with more effective measures.
        This issue can be solved with more effective measures being taken.
        This issue can be solved with more effective measures taken.
        (with结构后面可以加名词,或者自带主语的分词结构)

        ▍ 现在分词

        Considering the seriousness of the current condition, we have to take strong measures immediately.

        ▍ 过去分词

        Adopted by more governments, these new policies have greatly improved the condition.

        ▍ by doing

        Governments need to control the situation by taking more effective and practical measures.

        ▍ 倒装

        So severe is the situation that we have to take measures immediately.
        Only by taking more effective and practical measures can this issue be dealt with.

        ▍ 强调

        It is the new measures that the government take in order to deal with this issue.
        It is to deal with the issue that governments act jointly and take a number of measures.

        ▍ 插入语

        The new policy, a series of preventive measures, is adopted to handle the situation.

        细心的你有没有发现,上面的25种变化,几乎已经把所有常规的英语语法结构都涵盖了。从易到难:简单句、并列句、定语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、时间状语从句、条件状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、让步状语从句、wtih 结构、 so … that 结构、倒装、强调、插入语等等。

        其实,个人主观感受来讲,他们之间没有本质的区别,最后用哪种结构,更多取决于你的句型需要和写作习惯。不排除,有些句型更适合某种场景。

        在这里,我们只是尝试翻译这样一个简单的中文意思,如果在写作业中,你想到的论证内容,涉及到更多层次的意思,写出来的英文句子变化的丰富程度可想而知。下次同学们在完成作业的时候可以试试这些句型转变哦!对于留学生论文写作还有疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服!Meeloun竭诚为海外学子服务!

Meeloun帮你摆脱在essay写作中谈“钱”色变的症状

report什么意思|report格式怎么写

        同学们在essay写作的观点素材里,有一个角度是非常常用且实用的,就是经济。当一个东西带来了盈利之后,我们就很多连锁的经济效益。而当人们不得不去负担更高的费用的时候,又会带来经济方面的压力,带来生活成本的压力。从而使很多其他重要的开销项目资金短缺。今天的小课堂,Meeloun小编就跟大家分享一下,我所想到的关于“钱”方面会出现的表达和观点,让你可以轻松自如的写出相关的论点。

        1.基本表达

        ▍ 赚钱

        make/ earn money
        make/ generate/ earn a profit
        result in capital gains for the company
        accumulate wealth/ create wealth/ acquire fortune

        ▍ 给钱

        give money to
        fund/ finance/ subsidize/ invest
        support financially
        grant sb. a subsidy
        provide financial support
        allocate financial resources
        disburse money/ disbursement of governmental funds

        ▍ 省钱

        save money/ cost-saving
        be economical/ cost-efficient/ cost-effective
        begrudge money
        has advantages in terms of cost
        economically advantageous

        ▍ 花钱/ 付钱

        spend money/ fund
        pay money/ pay a huge sum
        make ends meet

        ▍ 乱花钱

        spend money extravagantly/ lavishly/ recklessly
        squander/ waster money

        ▍ 缺钱

        shortage of money
        be short of money
        be in financial strait
        suffer from poverty
        run out of money

        2.常用观点

        ▍ 促进经济发展

        boost/ develop/ expand/ improve/ strengthen/ bolster up the economy
        economic boost
        push forward world economic growth
        enhance economic conditions
        uplift its socioeconomic status

        ▍ 增加(可支配)收入

        earn/ generate/ boost income
        a rise in average earnings
        an increase in remuneration
        bolster/ increase/ raise disposable income

        ▍ 降低或增加生活成本/ 带来或缓解经济负担

        reduce/ increase the living cost
        a rising living cost
        higher cost of living
        be financially burdened
        suffer financially
        creates a financial burden
        a drain on the economy
        be freed from financial burdens
        mitigate economic burdens

        3.连锁反应

        ▍ 把话题提升到行业高度

        创造经济价值/ 创造就业→ 增加税收/ 经济发展

        generate economic profit/ create employment opportunities/ reduce the unemployment rate → produce government revenue/ boost the economy

        适用的题目包括旅游/ 媒体/ 广告/ 更多电视节目/ 民俗商业化等 到底好不好?

        ▍ 提高 xx 的价格

        增加家庭预算→ 影响生活质量

        the negative impact on family budgets/ cutbacks in household budgets and consumption → affect/ impair the quality of life

        适用的题目包括:提高油价、机票的价格、进口食品更普遍

        ▍ 政府为 xx 付钱

        增加政府财政开销→ 影响其他重要领域/ 增加老百姓税收

        impeding investment and government spending/ create a significant additional financial burden on → affect the spending on other crucial aspects/ fields// increase/ raise taxation

        适用的题目包括:免费医疗/ 免费教育/ 免费公交

        看到这里,同学们下次谈“钱”就再也不会发愁了吧!需要essay代写的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!Meeloun竭诚为海外学子服务!

我是如何在号称澳洲挂科之王的悉尼大学幸存下来的

        收到悉尼大学的offer之后,很多同学都喜忧参半,喜的是努力了那么久终于有了个好结果,忧的是悉尼大学的“澳洲挂科之王”的称号可不是瞎编的,很多同学害怕自己不能顺利毕业,导致前功尽弃。今天Meeloun小编就给同学们分享一位学姐给大家的学习方法,快来围观!

        这已经是我海外生活的第四年了。

lazy loading - 我是如何在号称澳洲挂科之王的悉尼大学幸存下来的
        几年前,当我从悉尼大学拿到我的dream offer,开始我在澳大利亚的第一个学期时,我既兴奋又紧张。我仍然记得非常清楚如何我自己融入unilodge震惊口音和不理解的时候公寓的前台,我跟着人群和登记我的单位不知道如何注册,我遇见了我的朋友后如何影响我,成为我生命中那些所谓的不可替代的。它充满了不确定性,新的校园,新的人,新的生活方式,最重要的是,我担心如何在我的学术生涯中幸存。这正是我的许多学生经常问的问题,我觉得有义务分享我的一些个人经历。

        从学校网站开始

lazy loading - 我是如何在号称澳洲挂科之王的悉尼大学幸存下来的

        首先,从学校的在线学习网站开始。第一学期似乎总是一场灾难。我们已经习惯了在教育系统中被指导和分配任务,那里没有人告诉我该做什么。同时,在中国,大部分的研究都是基于纸质的,在澳大利亚,一切都是基于网络的(我想大多数其他海外大学也会这样),坦白的说,我不知道该如何开始。因此,学校的在线学习网站是你首先需要看的东西。你应该知道在哪里下载演讲幻灯片,听演讲录音,提交作业,看你的成绩,做测验,参加小组讨论,在哪里申请延期。

        时间大作战

        第二,时间管理是关键。我看到我的很多学生和同龄人都在为deadline而奋斗。但这是我从来没有遇到过的问题,我的时间管理技能也应该归功于它。

        1。做一个日历。把我所有的评估和它们各自的重量和截止日期放在一起。

        2。每周开始做一个待办事项清单。应该把优先级和大的任务划分为小的部分。

        3。坚持你的计划,把事情做好。这会给你一种成就感,也会非常鼓舞人心。

        记住,不要制定过于雄心勃勃的计划,给自己时间休息。我有一个朋友,他制定了雄心勃勃的计划,没能完成计划,改变了她的计划,一直错过了最后期限。

lazy loading - 我是如何在号称澳洲挂科之王的悉尼大学幸存下来的

        抱好大腿是王道

        第三,你需要一个最重要的武器在学术能力强,成绩优异的学生!试着坐在他们的旁边,和他们交谈,加入他们的小组,和他们一起做考试复习。相信我,你会得到一个完全不同于你自己的分数。当我在做第一个学位的时候,我有一个不合理的哲学单元。整个学期,我都不知道讲师在说什么,但在我的高成就朋友的帮助下,我以优异的成绩通过了澳大利亚系统的最高等级(80%,最高水平)。哦,如果你是一个成绩优秀的学生,别理我。

        我是如何发现那些成绩优异的学生的?他们是那些很容易理解演讲的人,完成高水平的作业,不费太多力气就能通过考试。你需要特别注意观察。

        1。他们通常是书呆子或文静的中国人

        2。他们通常在讲座上给予高度的关注。

        3。他们正忙着在课堂上记笔记
        记住,他们在笔记本上记笔记,而不是在纸上!这是非常重要的。我从不打印幻灯片,在纸上做笔记,而且几乎从来没有看到一个成绩优秀的学生也这么做!因为我们知道,在任何可能的情况下,只要键入、复制、粘贴和搜索,就会变得更简单、更省时。效率是每一个成绩优秀的学生所珍惜的东西。

        我想这差不多就是今天的内容了。我正在做我的第二个主人,这是我生命的最后一个学期。我有时还在挣扎,因为我在做一个不属于我的专业。然而,我现在并不恐慌。我总是戴着蒙娜丽莎般的微笑,因为我已经是一个经验丰富的司机,知道如何用上面的技巧战胜那些困难。

lazy loading - 我是如何在号称澳洲挂科之王的悉尼大学幸存下来的
        我希望它能对那些准备好迎接他们的海外生活的人有所帮助。祝你学习顺利。有时候会很困难,孤独,痛苦,但这是完全值得的。在学习方面有需要帮助的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。

中国留学生在paper写作时如何避免犯错?

        中国学生在paper写作的过程中,或多或少会犯一些常见的错误,写的时候没发现,到后期检查的时候还庆幸来得及修改。久而久之,我们就养成了这样的习惯:前期随心所欲地写、后期绞尽脑汁地改。但其实,前期认真一些,避开几个雷区,后期修改会轻松不少。

        Meeloun小编对中国学生的paper写作错误作了一些总结,包括但不限于:重复类似的单词和短语、近义单词用法混淆、滥用过多的副词。

        今天我们先来探讨,如何恰到好处地使用形容词和短语?

        请勿重复类似的形容词

lazy loading - 中国留学生在paper写作时如何避免犯错?

        中国学生刚开始英语写作的时候,喜欢用很多形容词来描述一件事情,这是很常见的。但是,如果过多相似的形容词叠加在一起表达,就会对读者造成干扰。如果你不太确定你的形容词是否使用的正确,那就选择一个最接近其意思的单词。

        我们来看一个例子:
        The dog was left outside during the storm,its barking was mournful and sad.

        在这个例子当中,mournful 和 sad这两个单词的意思很相近,没有给读者带来新的内容,所以只需要选择其中一个更好的。

        正确的用法:
        The dog was left outside during the storm,its barking was mournful.

        从另一角度来说,好的作者会用多个不同的形容词来形容一件事物,但这些形容词需要和主题息息相关,同时也提供给读者更多信息。

        优秀用法:The dog was left outside during the storm,its barking was strained and mournful.

        在这个例子当中,mournful告诉读者狗的叫声是伤心的,而 strained 这个单词也表现了这只狗叫的太久从而他的声音已经疲惫了。 虽然意思相近,但是表达的内容却不一样,这样会更加生动。

        请勿重复使用不必要的单词短语

lazy loading - 中国留学生在paper写作时如何避免犯错?

        写作新手为了使文章更具有说服力,经常在文章中重复使用相似的形容词,或者用类似的短语表达相同的事物,以此强调自己的观点。

        举个例子:
        The committee discussed the neighborhood concerns at a meeting, where they talked about neighborhood problems.

        这个句子可以缩改为: The committee discussed the neighborhood concerns at a meeting.或者:The committee talked about neighborhood problems at a meeting.

        在文章当中重复表达观点是新手很容易犯的毛病。 所以,我们建议在写作完成后,阅读写好的文章,检查一下是否犯了重复的毛病。

        在独立写作中这个问题也很常见, 比如这个句子: An intense debate about this topic has been awakened and caused major concerns.

        虽然这句话用了 awakenedcaused major concerns这两个不同的短语,但表达的意思是相同的, 可以删掉其中一个, 改写成 An intense debate about this topic has been awakened.或者The intense debate about this topic has caused major concerns.

        看完你是不是这个表情

lazy loading - 中国留学生在paper写作时如何避免犯错?

        接下来我们还会继续更新中国学生在paper写作中遇到的常见错误,觉得对自己的写作有帮助的同学可以持续关注我们哦!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。

英文论文写作中如何用中心句表达中心思想

        很多留学生在英文论文写作中对于中心句把握的不是很好,中心思想是文章的灵魂,而中心句是最能体现段落的中心思想。下面Meeloun小编就给同学们讲解如何用中心句还表达自己论文的中心思想。

        中心句不仅是对文章主论点的支撑,也是调整并连接句子和段落的顺序结构的桥梁。因此在浏览文章的时候,读者都习惯扫描段落的前几句话,迅速掌握中心思想。

        中心句是从文章主论点衍生而来,但切忌反复重复主论点内容,否则中心句和所引出的下文都是冗赘。

lazy loading - 英文论文写作中如何用中心句表达中心思想

        并不是每一段都有中心句,但绝大部分情况如此。如果第二段是为了更加详细解释前一段的内容,则只需过渡,无需设立新的中心句。

        中心句的形式有许多,比如复杂句加连接词,由主句和从句组成。

        例如:Although Young Woman with a Water Pitcher depicts an unknown, middle-class woman at an ordinary task, the image is more than “realistic”; the painter [Vermeer] has imposed his own order upon it to strengthen it. 由“although”所引出的从句呼应前文,而主句则是引出下文。

lazy loading - 英文论文写作中如何用中心句表达中心思想

        中心句不是说大口号,比如“Today I’m going to discuss the benefits of gardening.”

        中心句不能讲的太露骨,如果底牌被摸透,读者很容易失去兴趣。因此中心句要做到不赤裸挑明,却能使读者心照不宣。

        举个例子。“In the story, Amelia did many good things such as help out her friends, talk to her parents, and support her team at school.”描述一目了然,但过于详细的解说使读者读起来乏味。

        反之“As a result of the many activities Amelia participated in, she was recognised for her positive influence on the community.”不仅预示读者所要看到的内容,又留给读者一个小小的期待,想看Amelia到底做了什么,给大家带来了怎样的正面影响。

lazy loading - 英文论文写作中如何用中心句表达中心思想

        中心句的范围,切忌过宽亦过窄。过窄导致没有扩展继续写作的空间,比如“Increased funding for public roads in Jackson County has decreased traffic by 20%.”这是一条强有力的数据,但不适用于中心句。

        中心句的写法应该是“In addition, increasing funding for public roads in Jackson County will improve local residents’ quality of life.”

        再比如:“The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.” 范围过广,可以修改为“Sherman’s destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.”

lazy loading - 英文论文写作中如何用中心句表达中心思想

        中心句和introduction有很多相似之处,比如吸引读者注意力。有时可以尝试使用问题,引发读者深思,比如“Does the promise of stability justify this unchanging hierarchy?”

        中心句的表达方式直截了当,不应该让读者猜测内容,或者强迫读者到下文找关键信息点,来揣测这段的内容

        所谓的“合理”,完全在于作者是否有充分的论据来支撑中心句。鼓励支持同学们提出新论点新想法,但一定要有文献或者数据等可信度高的论据做支撑,如果整段内容都是自己凭空捏造的,虽然全部为原创,但没有任何学术意义。这也从侧面凸显了文献引用的重要性。

        另外中心句的内容避免单纯地列举客观事实,可以将事实与自己的观点相关联。比如与其说“All dogs need food”不如说“All dogs need regular care, including healthy food, and children are the best ones to do it.” 不仅增加趣味性,也增加了自己的观点。

        有的人习惯将过渡句和中心句分开,有的人喜欢将两者结合,因人而异。比如“Although gardening has many health benefits, people still need to exercise caution when outside.” 不仅总结了园艺带来的身体健康好处,也引出了新一段的内容,即锻炼时的注意事项。

        根据中心句在段落中所出现的位置,举两个例子。

        首句为中心句

        The tragic hero is typically on top of the wheel of fortune, half-way between human society on the ground and the something greater in the sky. Prometheus, Adam, and Christ hang between heaven and earth, between a world of paradisal freedom and a world of bondage. Tragic heroes are so much the highest points in their human landscape that they seem the inevitable conductors of the power about them, great trees more likely to be struck by lightning than a clump of grass. Conductors may of course be instruments as well as victims of the divine lightning: Milton’s Samson destroys the Philistine temple with himself, and Hamlet nearly exterminates the Danish court in his own fall.

        过渡句加中心句

        We found in comedy that the term bomolochos or buffoon need not be restricted to farce, but could be extended to cover comic characters who are primarily entertainers, with the function of increasing or focusing the comic mood. The corresponding contrasting type is the suppliant, the character, often female, who presents a picture of unmitigated helplessness and destitution. Such a figure is pathetic, and pathos, though it seems a gentler and more relaxed mood than tragedy, is even more terrifying. Its basis is the exclusion of an individual from the group; hence it attacks the deepest fear in ourselves that we possess—a fear much deeper than the relatively cosy and sociable bogey of hell. In the suppliant pity and terror are brought to the highest possible pitch of intensity, and the awful consequences of rejecting the suppliant for all concerned is a central theme of Greek tragedy.

        以上就是Meeloun小编给同学们分享的关于如何写好中心句的方法,对于英文论文写作还有相关疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。

猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        经历了第一周的开学洗礼,想必小伙伴们都已经大概了解了莫纳什的课程形式,随着学期的深入,同学们也将迎来各种Assignment的洗礼。大家记得随时查看各个科目的Unit Guide,记好每个Assignment的截止日期,不要像小编一样,开学第四周周六点开Unit Guide,发现昨天有个Due,内心毫无波澜,甚至有点想笑。

lazy loading - 猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        提到Assignment,就不得不提ESSAY和REPORT,它们可以说是90%Assignment的形式,那么关于ESSAY 和REPORT,大家又了解多少呢。今天Meeloun小编就来为大家讲解如何写出一篇合格的Essay和Report

lazy loading - 猫本留学生要如何写出合格的essay和report?

        1.ESSAY的格式讲解
        翻开莫纳什官方Q Manual, 大家会发现上面这样一张表
        由表中可以清晰看到,ESSAY主体分为三部分:Introduction, body, conclusion.
        Introduction为开头介绍部分,主要目的为介绍本篇ESSAY话题,开篇立意,提供背景信息,基本原理,本篇的大纲,简单来说就是告诉读者你这篇文章到底要讲什么,你的观点是什么。
        Body是一篇ESSAY的核心部分,我们80%的篇幅都在这部分内容。你需要在这部分具体陈述你的观点,你的论据,包括你的具体例子去支撑你的观点。一般来说根据字数去分段,
        正常来讲1000-1500字ESSAY三段即可。一个段落表示一个你的具体观点+论据+例子。最后可以有一个一句话的对于本段的评论和总结。
        Conclusion是一篇ESSAY的结尾部分,主要目的就是总结全篇内容,把你的观点用一个总结式的语句写出来,注意不要重复用Body的句子。另外可以在结尾写一些你的研究的其他内容,如你的研究的意义(importance of your findings),不足之处(limitation of your research),对未来建议(suggested future directions)等等。
        最后附上Reference即可,关于Reference格式我们最后会说。

        2.REPORT的格式讲解
        Report格式其实和Essay很像,所以很多同学容易搞混。Report分为四个主要部分,除去ESSAY有的Introduction, body和 Conclusion以外,Report多了一个写在开头的Executive Summary。
        Executive Summary是什么呢,其实Executive Summary可以看错一个对全篇Report的概述,写它的目的主要是为那些没有时间阅读全部Report的人提供的,所以它不宜过长,一般不超过一页,主要内容为讲述本篇Report的目的,背景,信息资源,主要发现以及总结和建议。
        Introduction 和Conclusion基本和Essay差不多,不作过多介绍。我们接下来主要来看一篇Report的核心部分,也就是Body。Body和Essay最大的不同点就是没有你自己的观点,也就是说,你要写你发现了什么,用的什么方法,数据是多少,结论是什么,但是你不能说我认为怎么怎么样。一篇合格的Report需要的是客观而不是主观论据。所以我们一般都用第三人称,尽量避免第一人称。

        除此之外,在开篇加上目录,在结尾加上Reference ,一篇Report就诞生啦。

        3.REFERENCE格式
        Reference是Essay和Report必须要有的一个很重要的部分,一般来说,大家的Assignment都会有Reference的个数要求,不同的文章,不同的字数,要求数目也不同,字数越多,要求数目越多。
        关于格式,Reference有很多种格式,但莫纳什一般要求使用APA Style的格式。这里拿一本书作为例子:Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead. 大家可以从中看出基本格式为作者,年份(出版的年份),书名还有出版社的地址。拿一篇期刊举例: Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146. 基本格式为作者,年份,文章名,期刊名,以及具体页数。如果大家是在网上找到的资料,那么要在最后加上在哪里截取的,如:Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http://journals.f+f.org/spectre/vblofeld-0046g.html。这里对APA只作一个简单介绍,大家的Q MANUAL当中都有具体不同的格式,在写Reference之前一定要查清楚,保证格式不要错,这样就会写出一篇合格的Essay 和Report。

        对于essay和report写作还有相关疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。

新西兰paper范文–价格体系的模型与思想

        复杂性来自丰富的思想主体,而且从数学到物理学,从计算机科学到社会科学,都对它们产生了影响。同时,随着经济的发展和新的贸易方式的出现,经济学不再具有线性、连续性和各种容易被预测或理解的现象。这些现象被称为复杂性经济学。价格体系是复杂性理论在经济学中应用的典型例子。在这个系统中,有许多相似和相互作用的部分(个体生产者、代理人)、服从的简单规则(成本效益分析)和个体行为(价格)形成的聚合模式。本文首先介绍了新古典经济学的特点,并举例说明了复杂性经济学的定义和思想,有助于理解价格体系的复杂性。和之前的具体实例,它将解释一个相对思想——瓦尔拉斯行为演化。然后举例说明了价格系统的具体应用,它体现了价格复杂性的操作原理。在这些例子之后,概述和根据上面的说明得出结论。本文旨在通过介绍和分析几个有代表性的例子,介绍一种新的价格体系模型和思想体系,以及一种新的经济学思想。

        1. Introduction 简介

        Complexity has come from abundant subjects of thought, moreover, has reacted upon them, from mathematics to physics, from computer science to social sciences. Meanwhile, with the development of economics and the emergence of new way of trade, economics is no longer rife with linearity, continuity and a variety of phenomena that are easily predicted or understood. These phenomena have been labeled as complexity economics. The price system is a typical example of the application of complexity in economics. In this system, there are many similar and interacting parts (individual producers, agents), simple rules to obey (cost-benefit analysis) and aggregate patterns form from individual behavior (price). This report will first introduce the characteristics of neoclassical economics and come to illustrate the definition and ideas of complexity economics, which is helpful to comprehend the complexity in price system. And before moving to concrete examples, it will interpret a relative ideology —— the evolution of walrasian behavior. Then it will demonstrate several examples as concrete applications about price system which embody the operation principle of complexity in it. After these examples, an overview and a conclusion based on the illustration above will be stated. This report is aimed to introduce a new model and ideology of price system, and then a new ideology about economics, by illustrating and analyzing several representative examples.

        2. From neoclassical economics to complexity economics 从新古典经济学到复杂性经济学

        i) Definition of complexity economics

        According to Richard H. Day (1994), the definition of complexity in economics in terms of dynamic outcomes is that “an economic system is dynamically complex if its deterministic endogenous processes do not lead it asymptotically to a fixed point, a limit cycle, or an explosion.”(as cited in Rosser, 1996). But this definition is in a broad sense so that some systems that others would argue should not be included are included. To define it in a narrow sense, we need more specific characteristics and they will be stated in next paragraph.

        ii) A comparison between the two types

        Complexity economics seems to be an inversion of neoclassical theory. Axel Leijonhufvud remarks that neoclassical economics “smart people in unbelievably simple situations,” whilst the real world involves “simple people with incredibly complex situations.”(as cited in Gintis,2006). According to Gintis (2006), there are five main aspects which the two types differ from each other. The first one is dynamics: the neoclassical economics is static, linear and thermodynamically closed so that it can be interpreted by algebraic geometry; while the complexity economics is dynamic, nonlinear and thermodynamically open, which lead itself to be far from equilibrium in general. The second one is agents: in the former, agents have “perfect information” and can optimize the information and surplus naturally; while in the latter, agents have “limited information” and face an obstacle of high price in information processing. This characteristics can be associated with the third one. The third one is networks: in neoclassical economics, agents face impersonal price system structure respectively without interaction; however, in complexity economics, agents have to participate in complex overlapping networks so that they can avoid the disadvantages of limited information and high costs in information processing as much as possible. In this way, under appropriate circumstance, agents in complexity economics can form non-optimal but high-efficient model for operating in complex environments. The forth one is emergence: in neoclassical economics, all the macro properties can be derived from its micro properties (for example, the fundamental theorems of welfare); but in complexity economics, macro patterns are emergent properties derived from micro interactions and behaviors, in the same sense that the chemical properties of a complex molecule, such as various carbon of simple substance, is an emergent property derived from its nuclear and electronic structure. In this case, we cannot analytically derive the macro-level properties from micro-level ones (its component parts), although there might be some undetected connections. Now we only can apply novel mathematical techniques to illustrate the emergent properties to some degree. The last one is evolution: there is no conditions or necessity for mechanism to create novelty or growth in complexity in neoclassical economics; while in the complexity economics, the evolution of differentiation, selection and amplification contributes to the novelty of system and the growth of complexity.

        3. The Evolution of Walrasian Behavior Walrasian Behavior的进化

        In neoclassical economics, Walrasian equilibrium is the main concept in price system, which determines the price in markets according to linear supply-demand relationship. It is undeniable that walrasian theory still plays an irreplaceable part in nowadays economics. However, this theory builds upon a central hypothesis which excludes strategic behavior of manipulating prices directly or indirectly in agents’ own advantages. In Complexity and Artificial Markets (Schredelseker and Hauser, 2008), specific computations are made to illustrate the evolutionary model in price system. It shows the results of simulation experiments about an economy in which agents may have different behavioral rules on price determination.

        As we know, agents in our economy environment will compare the profits gained in each iteration to those gained by other firms in that iteration so that they can choose a better strategy in the long-run operation. Below is the terse and concise summary of the computations from Schredelseker and Hauser (2008). Assume a set of N firms by i = {1, 2,…,N} competing in a market. For every output supplied to the market, this demand function has a clearing price P(Q(t)) for market at which it is sold. Assume all firms are “ex-ante symmetric” with typical cost function C(q)= c1q(i)c2, where q(i) is the production of each firm i={1,2,…,N}, and the parameters c1 and c2 are positive. The evolutionary dynamics, which follows t = 0,1,2,.., proceed in discrete time. The principle that profits induced by current output is P(Q(t))qi −C(qi), i ={1,2,… ,N}. When the profits are realized, firms can choose a better strategy in the long-run operation by comparison and iteration. In this way, the individual profit function can be presented:

        And the relative profit is:

        From the two functions, we can see the effect on prices that one firm changes its output (quantity) is completely offset by another firm as there is no externalities in the product. And the resulting equation, after maximization and without iteration, simply: P , which means that price is equal to marginal cost in the Walrasian allocation. So a conclusion can be drawn that only if agents maximize relative profits with no imitation, the Walrasian equilibrium can be reached. And the above equations shows that the relative to the average measure is equivalent to the absolute difference in the profits between any two identical firms. Hence, in the real markets, agents imitating the most successful firm from the past round performance so that those strategies that do not perform as well as the average firm will be eliminated before coming to next round. (Schredelseker and Hauser, 2008)

“选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi”

回国胖了20斤肉的
留澳打工的
日夜轰趴的
佛性度日的
分手的谈恋爱的

你们日夜想念的

Assignment, Report, Essay
Presentation, In-class test, Final

终于要回来了!lazy loading - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"

当然,开学前还有一件大事

选 课
(Zhuang Da Yun)

俗话说的好:

“选课选的好,天天睡到饱!
选课选的迟,天天想吃shi”

今天早上,Meeloun小编的朋友圈就被各种选课刷爆了..

这就来带大家欣赏一下这场选课大战…
(图片均来自朋友圈)

心态崩了类QQ浏览器截图 20180302161610 C16577822E844ea8B7D85C0E724C66ED 300x245 - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"lazy loading - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"

佛系类

lazy loading - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"

lazy loading - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"

盲目自信类

lazy loading - "选课选的好,天天睡到饱; 选课选的迟,天天想吃shi"

“选课选的好,天天睡到饱!
选课选的迟,天天想吃shi”

Meeloun小编又采访了曾经的留学生们
大家回忆了当年的选课
感慨不已…

@Lexie
当年想和闺蜜选一样的课,迟到的可以帮忙签到,下课了还可以一起讨论assignment,幸福感啊有木有!然而初始课表总拆散我们!所以这就需要我们不停的和小伙伴们对课表,刷时间。

@Allen
犹记得当时学校最出名的课是业内某大V授课的Video Storytelling,一学期就这么一节,一次只收不到20人,而全年级90多人中的一大半都想修这门课。第一次我在选课开始三分钟后才进系统,课就选完了,只好又等了半年;第二次提前五分钟登录系统,狂点刷新,最后才成功的。

@Elaine
假期回国玩到飞起,压根儿忘了选课的这件事,开学前回到澳洲的时候,登上timetable都傻眼了,剩下的课中午下午的全满了,只剩下早上的课,宝宝心里苦但是宝宝不说 。

@Zoe
我还是有自知之明的,深知自己起不来,而且还住的离学校远,早上10点之前的课是万万使不得的!身体是革命的本钱,还是希望各位同学选课的时候,慎重考虑!

@Steed
有朋友把所有课都满满的排在两天之内,从早上8点到晚上8点全是课。晚上回到家已经累的趴下了。

@Hannah
一周五天都有课,时间参差不齐,虽然课不多,但是每天要往学校跑一次也是好心累。

@Sophia
课还是不要排的太过密集,早上如果总是迟到不仅会影响attendance,学习效率还不高。注意时间安排的同时,小伙伴们也要保证生活节奏不被打乱。

都是血和泪的教训啊..大家可以选择性佛性吸取..

最后给小伙伴们一点选课的小tip,包你选到满意的课哦~

1st tip:
刷刷刷!不停的刷新系统,可能会有别的同学改了课,你心仪的那节课空了个位子,你就可以选啦~

2nd tip:
新生还没进来之前,选课系统可能只放了80%,在新生orientation之后,你可以重新刷新一遍系统,你就会惊喜的发现,很多课时都被放出来可以选啦~

一般情况下,截止到开学的第二周结束,都是可以选课和换课的.

3rd tip:
如果实在是全部满了,但是如果你的实际情况和上课时间有冲突,不要慌!有问题找老师,你可以试试看给tutor发邮件说明你的情况,然后把适合你的上课时间告诉他,部分老师会帮你手动改课表哒!~~(亲测有效哦~)

愿各位都能选到心仪的课
和自己的男神、女神选到同一个班