八月, 2016 | 留学生essay代写网

英国留学怎么写出受欢迎的essay

小论文essay什么意思?怎么写着一定是很多朋友想要咨询的问题,而本文将会为大家一一介绍。
essay是本科留学申请文书中的重要内容,被称为申请小论文,或命题作文。学校并不给出具体题目,只是指出大概方向,学生自己确定主题和写作。申请者要通过个性化的写作内容充分展示自己的与众不同之处。essay的题目和内容可以千奇百怪,但要主题突出,集中描写细节,展现自我特长和个性。

怎么写出受欢迎的essay

教育专员现场分享的两篇小论文中,一位学生写自己在中学期间组建过女子足球队,做过义工和其他一些社会活动,对学校的感情很深,自己的爸爸、爷爷都毕业于将要申请的这所学校。另一位学生的小论文的第一句话是“当同龄人进入青春期时,自己的青春期却迟到了”,迟到的青春期给他带来一系列烦恼,如同龄的男孩子会欺负他,别人开始萌发美好爱情时,他被更多女生看作弟弟,甚至连自己哥哥也用略带嘲讽的口吻问他,怎么还不长胡子。当迟到的“青春期先生”终于到来后,回首经历的一系列烦恼,他更多的是感谢这段经历,使自己更自信,更谦虚,更宽容待人。

“假如你是招生官,更喜欢哪篇?”面对教育专员的提问,现场学生和家长各抒己见。一位学生说喜欢第二篇,独特的角度,生动、幽默的语言,让人看到这是一个什么样的人,作者的性格品质跃然纸上。另一位男生则喜欢第一篇,觉得通过文字,可以看出这位学生开展了许多活动,有社会责任感。一位家长说,如果要招收工程、建筑等理工科类专业学生,可能倾向于第一个学生,因为其小论文似乎更有条理;如果要招收需要发散思维的学生,可能会考虑第二个。现场另一位学生认为两篇各有不足,第一篇只展示学生做了哪些事儿,却显示不出作者是个什么样的人。第二篇的故事可以看出他是什么样的人,却看不出他做了哪些事儿。还有位学生索性说会考虑两个学生,然后发邮件让他们补充故事材料。

面对学生和家长的议论,教育专员指出,这些正是学生写小论文时普遍存在的问题,总有很多担心,担心像第二个学生那样,只写一点,不能尽其言,担心招生官无法看到自己其他方面的优秀表现,担心很多要表达的内容无法写进去。最终,很多学生为“保险起见”,会像第一个学生那样,面面俱到,恨不得把自己所有参与过的活动都写进去。但招生官没有时间看一份面面俱到却毫不生动的essay,只会对第二篇显示的那种个性突出的学生感兴趣。招生官面对数千份甚至上万份申请材料,让学生补充essay的情况几乎不存在。

教育专员强调,在申请材料中,有一项要求学生填写参加过的各类社会实践活动,最多可填写10项活动内容,学生能在这里填写的活动内容,完全没必要写进essay中。Essay一般要求学生通过描写过去的经历,表现性格品质及观点。学生写作时要力求生动、新鲜、感人,真正出自自己之手,而不要像中介代写或包装过的文章那样显得过于完美。

report写法介绍|report代写

Report写作是很多同学都觉得头疼的事,那么report到底怎么写呢?美伦小编为大家带来这篇文章大家可以详细看看别人是怎么去写一篇report的。

report写法介绍|report代写
1.0 执行概要2
2.0 前言2
3.0 莫里森超市规模快速扩张的的方法和原因2
3.01 企业扩张方法3
3.02 以顾客为中心的方法3
3.03 莫里森规模扩张过程中所选择的方法的原因3
4.0 商业环境分析3
4.01 经济因素4
4 4.02 政治因素和法律因素
4.03 社会文化因素5
4.04 技术因素6
4.05 环境因素6
5.0 结论7
5.0 参考表7

1.0 执行概要
这份报告的目的是分析可能影响商业发展的各种环境。如今,企业发展过程中,不仅面临着内部环境的变化,也面临着外部环境的急剧改变,可以说,外部环境在商业的发展和企业成长的过程中也扮演重要的角色,尤其是跨国公司。因为经营环境对企业的影响是动态的和快速变化的,因此,分析商业发展变得越来越不同。在这份报告中,我们主要用细节出发的研究方法探索威廉·莫里森超市的商业环境。

Table of Contents
1.0 Executive summary 2
2.0 Introduction 2
3.0 The methods by which Morrisons has grown in size and the reasons 2
3.01 Enterprise expansion method 3
3.02 The method of customer-oriented 3
3.03 The reasons Morrisons might have had for choosing the methods 3
4.0 Business environment analysis 3
4.01 Economic factor 4
4.02 Political factor and Legal factor 4
4.03 Socio-cultural factor 5
4.04 Technological factor 6
4.05 Environment factor 6
5.0 Conclusion 7
5.0 Reference list 7

1.0 Executive summary
The purpose of this report is to analyze all kinds of environment which can influence the operation of business. Nowadays, not only internal environment but also external environment of enterprise play important role in the development of an enterprise, especially, for a multinational company. Because business environment influence on enterprise is dynamic and rapidly changing, analysis of business becomes more and more different. In this report, we mainly we use PESTLE research methods to explore the business environment of William Morrison Supermarket.

2.0 Introduction
William Morrison Supermarket is one of the largest chain store in Britain whose headquarter was located in Bradford, in England and it is usually called William Morrison Supermarket for short. In 1899, William Morrison, an egg and butter merchant created William Morrison Supermarket and it initially dealt with eggs and butter. In 1952, his son, Ken Morrison began to run the company and in 1958, William Morrison Supermarket became the first self-service store in Bradford and can price on its own goods. In 1991, the first supermarket of William Morrison Supermarket which was called Victoria was opened in Bradford( Fox, Vorley, 2004). Nowadays, William Morrison Supermarket is the fourth largest food retailer in UK and our business mainly is to provide customers with food, grocery and other goods. In addition, William Morrison Supermarket has more than stores already in British and still considers continuing its exciting expansion plan.

3.0 The methods by which Morrisons has grown in size and the reasons
We mainly discuss the methods by which William Morrison Supermarket has grown in size from the following two aspects: the one is the expansion method by merging or opening supermarket in foreign countries; the other is the method of customer-oriented.

3.01 Enterprise expansion method
Before 2004, William Morrison Supermarket only focused the market in north England. In 2004, William Morrison Supermarket opened a store in Scotland which is the first branch in a foreign country. After 2004, William Morrison Supermarket subsequently has acquired many enterprises which mainly were in other countries besides the UK. In William Morrison Supermarket acquired Safeway and became the fourth largest chain in the UK. In 2005, William Morrison Supermarket took over completes the takeover of three factories from Rathbones. From the above, we can know that merging or opening supermarket in foreign countries is a method which makes William Morrison Supermarket having grown in size (Klapper, Love, 2004).

3.02 The method of customer-oriented
Another method by which William Morrison Supermarket has grown in size is the principle of customer-focused. To make a difference, William Morrison Supermarket provides a distinctive offer for its customers including fresh goods; makes great food and offers good service: does well in customer relationship management.

3.03 The reasons Morrisons might have had for choosing the methods
Because William Morrison Supermarket is a supermarket, of course, it has its own operating characteristics and operating model. Therefore, William Morrison Supermarket will also choose the method for development and growing. In short, the method of merging or opening supermarket in foreign countries is the need of market expanding. In addition, if a company wants to succeed, it must carry out the principle of customer-focused.

4.0 Business environment analysis
In general, we also use PESTLE analysis method to explore the political-legal, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and technological (PESTLE) factors which are shaping the external environment in which William Morrison Supermarket is operating ( Poon, 2000; Carlin, Schaffer, 2012)

4.01 Economic factor
The macro economy has a profound impact upon enterprise’s business activity and enterprise faces the huge challenge with the change of the economic environment. However, how economy affects the enterprise and through what economic factors to influence the enterprise? Main economic factors include interest rates, inflation, unemployment, economic growth and other factors (Durnev, Kim 2005). Besides, economic reform has huge important to regulatory reforms (Eifert, 2007) and enterprise’s behavior.

William Morrison Supermarket is a British company, so Britain’s economy situation has important influence on its development and growing. For the moment, fiscal deficit is a big problem which the British government has to face. In addition, the British economy also faces other difficulties. First is the crisis of confidence from the top to the bottom, British consumers are reducing consumption and investment, which makes the economy lack of energy. And if the economy continues to recover, domestic demand and corporate investment must pick up. European debt crisis also affect British economy. The British national bureau of statistics’ data shows that the national per capita income has fallen by 13% since 2008. Hard economic times coupled with inflation, is the main cause of per capita income falls, which also lead to depressed consumption.

As a Supermarket, William Morrison Supermarket is under the influence of British macro economy, such as depressed consumption, inflation, European debt crisis and other factors, which can directly influence the operating and growing of William Morrison Supermarket (Yu, Ramakrishnan, Ramanathan, 2012),.

4.02 Political factor and Legal factor
Political stability and sound development are the solid foundation of a country’s development and prosperity, it can provide stability environment for the development of economic and social aspects. In general, we mainly take following political factors into consideration: political conflict, political uncertainty, arbitrary changes in policy and policy creep. Political conflict mainly includes war and sovereignty disputes. Political uncertainty mainly includes minority governments and coalition governments.

For William Morrison Supermarket, Britain’s political environment is relatively stable and didn’t take place some important political events. Firstly, the change of competent department in food industry influences the behavior of William Morrison Supermarket, which mainly engaged in food and other goods. Secondly, with the emergence and deterioration of the European debt crisis, Moody’s investors service, one of the big three rating agencies, down the British government debt ratings from Aaa to Aa1 On February 22, 2013. In addition, Moody’s investors service believed that government debt levels remain high and continue to increase, which will cause the government’s ability falling to cope with financial impact, and this situation is unlikely to change in 2016 years ago.

Finally, the British government refused to oligopoly and in March 2006, the British government bureau of fair trade did fair competition investigation, including Tesco, sainsbury and asda and Morrison.

4.03 Socio-cultural factor
Different social and cultural environment has important influence on the operation of a multinational company. An enterprise wants to operate well, it must consider following factors: demographics, lifestyle expectations, Changes in the composition of society, education and training. Demographics mainly include population, population density, ageing, life expectancy and infant mortality, size of households and consumer expenditures. Lifestyle expectations refer to luxuries become necessities. Changes in the composition of society refer multicultural, multi-faith, multiracial and multi-ethnicity. Education and training include literacy rates, vocational training, management training and other factors.

For William Morrison Supermarket, knowing well about social and cultural factors in eating habits in the UK is very important. Over the years, the British has been following trends in health and eating more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish and less meat has become the health beliefs of most people. So William Morrison Supermarket must following this belief and do they best to provide fresh and health foods and other goods for the British people. However, recent horse meat storm, which refers to beef products with horse meat not only involves health problems, professional level of food processing, retail and government regulators, but also seemly changed the British spending habits.

4.04 Technological factor
Technology factors include:basic technical progress will enable the enterprise make more effective analysis to the market and customers; the emergence of new technology will increase society’s demand of products and services; technical progress can create competitive advantages; technical progress can lead the existing product be obsolescence, or greatly shorten the product life cycle.

Because William Morrison Supermarket is a supermarket, product production process, the new sales channels such as technical progress will improve the performance. In terms of technology, because of the progress of information technology and electronic banking, shopping online is a main way of selling products. In addition, enterprise’s supply chain and customer relationship management which can communicate with supplier or customer about product price, quantity, quality and other things through internet are more and more popular and brings about huge convenience.

4.05 Environment factor
In terms to the environment of William Morrison Supermarket, nowadays, William Morrison Supermarket is the fourth largest food retailer in UK and our business mainly is to provide customers with food, grocery and other goods. The overall environment of William Morrison Supermarket is good. However, the British government refused to oligopoly and in March 2006, the British government bureau of fair trade did fair competition investigation, including Tesco, sainsbury and asda and Morrison. Because retail market in domestic large and medium-sized cities is saturated, and they are not allowed to enter new town and other places to develop local market in British, giant chains like William Morrison Supermarket faced with fierce market competition and have to choose to expand overseas.

5.0 Conclusion
In short, business environment has greatly influence on the growing and development of a company and enterprise should pay attention to analyze and evaluate it (Kennerley, Neely, 2003),. In this article, we through analyzing the methods by which it has grown in size and the reasons William Morrison Supermarket might have had for choosing the methods, mainly explore the business environment using PESTLE analysis method.

5.0 Reference list
William Morrison Supermarket, (2011), Annual report 2011.
Tom Fox, Bill Vorley. (2004), “Stakeholder accountability in the UK supermarket sector”, International Institute for Environment and Development, November.
Wendy Carlin, Mark Schaffer. (2012), “The Business Environment in the Transition”, CESifo Working Paper, No. 3934.
Durnev, A., H. Kim. (2005), “To Steal or Not to Steal: Firm Attributes, Legal Environment, and Valuation”, Journal of Finance, pp. 1461–93.
Klapper, L., I. Love, (2004). “Corporate Governance, Investor Protection and Performance in Emerging Markets”, Journal of Corporate Finance, pp. 703–728.
Eifert, B.P. (2007), “The economic response to regulatory reforms, 2003-2006”, University of California, Berkeley, Dept. of Economics, mimeo, September.
Wantao Yu, Ramakrishnan Ramanathan. (2012), “Effects of business environment on international retail operations: case study evidence from China”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, pp. 218-234.
Peter T. Ward, Rebecca Duray, G. Keong Leong, Chee-Chuong Sum. (1995), “Business environment, operations strategy, and performance: An empirical study of Singapore manufacturers”, Journal of Operations Management, pp. 99-115.
Mike Kennerley, Andy Neely. (2003), “Measuring performance in a changing business environment”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, pp. 213 – 229.
Poon S. (2000), “Business environment and internet commerce benefit— a small business perspective”, European Journal of Information Systems, pp. 72-81.

report写法介绍|report代写
如果大家喜欢这篇文章可以分享或者收藏哦,如果大家有论文作业没写而自己又没时间时候不妨找我们美伦教育,成立七年已经累计为超过20000名留学生们代写作业,我们之所以能够发展到今天,都是因为在留学生大军中有这良好的口碑,绝对值得您信赖。如果有作业代写要求赶紧联系我们的网站在线客服吧。

management report写法详细介绍

一份好的management report不论是在学校或是在职场对你都是有帮助的,所以大家还是看看本文是怎么介绍management report的写法。小编也希望这篇文章对大家有所帮助!

management report写法详细介绍
从业人员必须能够:
1。确定一个合适的项目,他们的管理报告,在其可行性和相关性的组织,以及在人员和发展的关键问题。
2。计划和设计一个项目,演示了战略问题的意识,并有可能作出贡献的组织绩效的改善。
三.表现出令人满意的知识,现有的文献,当代的人员和发展的做法,以及在主题区域选择的管理报告的政策问题。
4。访问和解释数据从主要和次要来源在编译材料为他们的管理报告。
1。识别他们的管理报告一个合适的项目,在其可行性和组织的相关条款,以及在人才和发展的关键问题。
2。计划和设计方案,论证了战略问题意识和改善组织绩效做出贡献的潜力。
3。现有的文献表明一个满意的知识,现代人才的做法,开发和选择的管理报告主题区域政策问题。
4。访问和解释从小学和中学在他们的管理报告资料编制的数据源。
5。制定适当和正确的技术应用,如访谈、问卷调查、参与观察和文献分析等,为他们的管理报告收集数据。
6。分析已收集到的数据,为他们的管理报告,通过使用定性和定量的方法为适当。
7。从他们的管理报告中得出切合实际的结论和适当的结论。
8。以清晰、合乎逻辑、系统的方式,以说服关键决策者的优点,提出他们的管理报告。
9。准备一个计划,在合理的时间内实施他们的管理报告所提出的建议。
10。对他们的管理报告进行批判性的审查,并确定他们的项目可以更有效地进行的方式。
附录:
评分标准
该模块的总体标记标准为:
这个模块将通过提交一篇论文的20000个字评估。本论文将对以下标准进行评估:
本论文充分地定义了一个适当的和同意的问题或领域的调查。
该问题进行了检查,通过一个精心设计的和铰接式的方法。
完成了论文的执行工作。
的数据收集是适当的,并对数据进行了分析和评估,以一个适当的水平。
调查结果与主题领域的更广泛的理论问题有关。
学生们可以充分地思考和欣赏他们自己工作的长处和短处。
那个学生坚持大学的研究道德准则。
附录指南:硕士学位论文评分标准指南
分类等级关联性知识分析论证与结构创意呈现
区别
≥70%直接相关的题目:解决标题的含义和细微差别。采用适当的研究技术,方法和范式。结论包含独创性。广泛的知识明显,通过适当的应用,通过非常好的研究获得的知识。一个明确的、合乎逻辑的结果的质量的研究。研究原创,以研究问题为中心。连贯和逻辑结构的高度创造性的使用的研究,在理论模型(S)和所提出的论点。高度原创,表现出高水平的独立思想。研究、方法论和思想的独创性。优秀的书面论文具有广泛的参考书目。清明和机智的风格传达了一个高层次的权威的主题。
优点
60 – 69%直接相关的标题:能够解决的影响,假设和细微之处。有效运用良好的知识,并深入了解相关研究。一个很好的使用分析的证据,论据和研究进行,导致明确和清晰的结果,包含原始元素。连贯的逻辑结构,创造性地使用一个合适的论点和研究模式。独特的作品,包含了独创性的元素,在整个具有良好的独立思想水平明显。写的非常好的一个相当广泛的相关书目输送的清醒和在学科权威高水平论文。
通过
50至59%个直接相关的标题。充分了解相关材料,明确其重要性的应用。良好的分析基础上良好的研究。可能有一定程度的描述和分析的目的,可能并不总是清楚地保持一贯的连贯和逻辑的尝试,使一个连贯的论点。结构化使用适当的参数和研究模式。偶尔在这个层面上可能是一个缺乏连贯性和适当的研究。可能包含一些独特的或独立的思维与独创性的元素。工作将是健全的,可能有一些个人意见。具有可接受的参考书目的可阅读风格的合理写的论文。
失败
关于研究和完全缺乏原创性的50%大问题。只显示了一个有限的研究范围和方法的基本理解。在很大程度上是描述性的,几乎没有分析能力的证据。基本思路明显,但不支持独立的研究缺乏清晰度和连贯性。在很大程度上衍生,没有独创性的元素在证据。写得不好,表达不足,缺乏清晰,在书目中的不足。

management report写法详细介绍

如果大家有论文作业没写而自己又没时间时候不妨找我们美伦教育,成立七年已经累计为超过20000名留学生们代写作业,我们之所以能够发展到今天,都是因为在留学生大军中有这良好的口碑,绝对值得您信赖。如果有作业代写要求赶紧联系我们的网站在线客服吧,美伦一定会为你带来最好essay代写、report服务的。

report什么意思|report格式介绍

刚入学的留学生刚刚接触report这个新的作业方式肯定都不知道怎么写才好,国内的老师日常在教育课上也从来教过我们report写法。众多同学首次听见report写文章就绝对还搞不清楚状况。大家有福了这处我们给很多同学做个开始阶段的绍介:report就是英文报告陈述,学会计、金融、理工类的学生可能会经常碰到。那么report该怎么写呢?
report什么意思|report格式怎么写下面为大家介绍一下report格式以及一些常用知识。
1.结构方面:Report普通由Table of Contents, Executive Summary, Introduction, Body, Conclusion/Recommendation, Reference六局部组成。

2.语言方面:Report中,假如标题是如果你是某企业CEO或其它某个角色,可以运用第1称呼;假如没有这么主人公的如果,仍然不可以用第1,2称呼。请注意这点和Essay的差别。

3.内部实质意义方面:

1)Report实践性更重一点儿,少写理论,多接合实际事情状况剖析。对于某些Case Aanalysis的Report来说,必须要针对导师供给的Case来做剖析,而不是自由施展和滥用无关涉的理 论。全部剖析都务必针对Case里的内部实质意义来施行。 2)数值和图表的运用很关紧。假如用到某企业几年内的某一项数值的变动,可以先列数值表格,再用柱状图、馅饼图或曲线图施行直观反映。⒋加意问题: 1) Table of Contents,必须要用Word半自动生成款式。

2)Executive Summary,普通要显露出来“the basicpurpose of this report is to……”这么的微记性语句。普通来说,这局部主要绍介 这篇Report的研究内部实质意义、研究对象、研究目标 、研究意义等等一点赅括性的物品。

3) Introduction,在一篇Report中,Introduction局部相当于是一个Background,而不是赅括Report的内部实质意义。请注意与Essay的差别。Report中的Introduction不赅括文章内部实质意义;不绍介文 章结构(由于目次里已经有结构绍介了);只绍介Background。

4) Body,总原则“少写理论,多接合实际事情状况剖析”,不要空谈。依据要求具体剖析,用凭证支撑、用事情的真实情况讲话。列出题目、次级题目、有不可缺少时列出下一级题目。每段内部实质意义用简洁的语言 炼取出要领网站关键词,而后行诠释和论述。

5) Conclusion / Recommendation, 依据论文要求具体把握。

6) Reference: Reference 是导师最高看的,所以请一定加意!完全不可以显露出来编造的事情状况,必须要真实。海外对这个问题查得很严。一朝查出有作假或剿袭事情状况,会直接挂科,甚至于开革 学籍。普通来说,Reference里面含有两个局部,一种是in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference,一种是在文章最终显露出来的reference, 也就是reference list。一篇论文一定要里面含有 文中的in-textreference日文末的reference list。论文有明确要求几个Reference的,依据要求来把握;没有明确解释明白个数的,普通依照每千字3-4个来操作。 Reference款式示明方法,普通论文要求中会明确提到。常用的Reference款式有: Harvard referencing system 哈佛文献标记系统 CMS: Chicago Manual of favor (CMS) 芝加哥写文章日文献示明系统: APa method:American Psychological Association. 美国心理学会写文章日文献标记方法 AMA:American Medical Association 美中医学会文献示明系统 MLA:现代文字学会写文章日文献示明系统 CSE: Council of Science Editors (CSE) 科学技术编辑理事会文献标记和写文章方法)

7) 字身子骨儿式:论文有明确要求字身子骨儿式、体积等时,依据要求来操作;论文没有明确要求字体体积等时,普通用用times new roman字体;12(小四);1.5倍行距;Word默许页边距;标 题文体可加粗;每段落之间空一行;每段直接写,无须空格;在每页的右下角插进去页数。

Report即指学术报告,一听“报告”两字,就知晓肯定风格特别正式。每篇Report都必须包括封面,封面内容要包括作者姓名、导师、时间、学科姓名等相关信息。完成了封面制作,report的第二步就是写目录(contents),我建议同学们在完成论文以前把此部分空着,因为你还没提笔写正文呢,目录就写好了?目录应该包括大小标题,页码等相关信息。第三部分就是Report的正文了,正文分为三个小部分:开头,内容和结尾。每个小部分的标题和副标题要加粗,正文内容建议使用小4葇諀Times New Roman字体。Report正文一定要严谨,既然是学术报告,则不建议同学们使用第1人称来表述。例如i feel,i think,non-publicspeaking等。专业性词汇要多加以解释,标明资料来源。例如报告中提到“只吃肉不吃蔬菜会导致癌症”,那么相关的解释说明是需要的,可以说从哪个白白报纸上看到的,仍然哪个大学的哪位博士提出的等等。开头部分的平常的写法为描画社会形态形态到现在为止的状态,对某话题进行研讨。然后写明该论文中将对哪部分进行解释、举例或分析等。中间部分要端绪明白,大多算学术报告不存在观点一说(例如你同不同意),所以不需要你有严谨的逻辑,只需要把每个学术名词解释清楚即可。最后就是结尾啦,必须不要在结尾部分加入文中从来没有提到过的东西。因为结尾的目的在于总结,而不是让你凑字数。既然是引用别人的观点,那么论文中一定要加上“reference”和“bibliography”。这两个单词是什么意思呢?自然产生的就是你引用资料的来源。因为预科学习中的网络资源比较多,所以我就给大家列出几个网络来源写法。Reference是需要体现在论文当中的,比如开头,正文或结尾部分。

譬如,你从谷歌中搜索出UF官网,从其中找到的资料出处(譬如UF公立预科入学雅思要求),那你在文中的reference则为:(UF,时间)。由于UF官网并没有此资料的时间,所以只消写“n.d.”即可。

例1:The IELTS requirement is 5.fivefor University First International Foundation Programme (UF, n.d.).

所以(UF n.d.)即为雅思要求的“网络出处”,称为文中的“reference”。

Bibliography 是需求表现出来在文末的,结末往后需求另起一页。每个reference对应一个bibliography,所以假如你的reference是UF雅思入学要 求,bibliography需求对应例1中的UF, n.d.,它的写法为大网站(譬如UF官网)+小题目+援用的文中的题目(斜体或下划线)+网址+你写此bibliography的时间

例2:Bibliography:

UF University First, Apply (n.d.),Encheck outRequirement for International Foundation Programme(斜体或下划线), Available at http://www.universityfirst.org/en/entry-requirements/ (Accessed 09/04/2015) 2015年4月9日即为你写此bibliography的时间,n.d.的意思是no date,即为此出处的刊发日子,由于UF官网上没有此时间所以为n.d.。

全部的reference和bibliography务必是英文网站,不行用百度,搜狐等内部实质意义,外国人可看不懂汉字。

report什么意思|report格式怎么写

pcsystems pcsystems
Assignment 1 – Topic: scanners

Date:
Student name:
Student number:
Tutor name:
academictime:

Abstract

This report investigates the present state of scanner technology and views the anticipated future advancements of scanners. a temporary history of the scanner and that its operation is initially outlined. The discussiat then makes a speciality of the benefits and limitations of the five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand-held scanners. The performance of those scanners is examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. it’s concluded that extratechnological advances within the se 4spacesin addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology will continue to decoratethe popularof scanned images. this is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other forms of technology this type ofs cameras.
Table of contents
Abstract     i
1.0     Introduction     1
2.0     How scanners work     2
3.0     kinds of scanners     2
3.1     Drum scanners     2
3.2     Flatbed scanners     2
3.3     Sheet-fed scanners     2
3.4     Slide scanners     3
3.5     hand-held scanners     3
4.0     Scanner specifications     3
4.1     Resolution     3
4.2     Bit-depth     4
4.3     Dynamic range     4
4.4     Software     4
5.0     Future developments     5
6.0     Conclusion     5
7.0     Reference list     5
Appendicies     6
Appendix 1 symbolSensor Scanner     8
Appendix 2 regularlyUsed References     9
Appendix 2.1 Scanner Tips     10
Appendix 2.2 Scanners, cameras and Photo CDs     11
Appendix 2.3 the pcTechnology Guide     12
1. Introduction

the aim of this report is to survey the present state of scanner technology and to briefly talkpredicted advancements within the field.

By examining a form of newly published journal articles, magazine articles and websites at the subject of scanners this report describes the basickinds of scanners in common use today and views their performance when it comes to 4criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. The report then considers the effect of extratechnological advances within the se 4areas, in addition to the deployment of latest sensor technology at the longer term progressionof scanners.

the basicscanner, initially known as a ‘reading machine’, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device mayscan printed material after which compare everyonealityto a suite of ordinarys in a matrix using, for the basictime, the “most efficientmatch principle” to figure out the unique message (Blatner, Fleishman and decayh 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to shapethe root for the developmentof curhirescanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early developmentat the reading machine wbecause the drum scanner. These scanners used one of those scanning technology known asphotomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still utilized in indusattempt today as a result of the highest of the diversityimages they produce. the developmentof smaller, more cost effective scanners this type ofs desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use the drum scanner because the choice of pcusers increased and pctechnology advanced.

Scanners can now capture images from all types of 2 and 3 dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised pcfiles that may be stored on a troublesome-drive or floppy disk. With assistance from expresssoftware, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the U.S.er. it’s now possible to deploy electronic acquisitidirectly to create a whole layout (including all graphic elements) from the similar computer. this implies manual stripping isn’t anyw not required (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invalucapable ofol for adding graphics and text to documents and feature been readily adopted by both business and domestic users.
2. How scanners work

A scanner is a tool that uses a lightsource to electronically convert a picture into binary knowledge(0s and 1s). This binary knowledgecan then be used to store the scanned symbolon a pc. A scanner recreates a picture by employingsmall electronic components known because the scanner’s ‘eyes’ (Scanner tips 2000). the kind of ‘eyes’ utilized in today’s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic esuremeasure the volume of sunshine reflected from personpoints at the page and translate it to digital signals that correply to the brilliantness of eachpoint (Englander 2000).

To create a file at the pc that represents a color image, the scanner divides the picture right into a grid with msomebody points known aspixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of ‘eyes’, reads over the grid and assymptomsa host to eachpixel according to the basiccolour in that pixel, employinggreen, blue and red. as an example an aqua pixel can be saved as a host to constitutethe professionalpart of blue, green and red which represents the color aqua (Scanners, cameras and photo CDs 2000).
3. kinds of scanners

Tlisted here are five main kinds of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand-held scanners.
3.1 Drum scanners

Drum scanners were common prior to now, but they’re less common today as a result of advances in scanner technology. because in their expense, these machines are primarily utilized by professionals in industry, where they’re considered vitalas a result of the high-finishquality symbolthey produce and as they use PMT technology that is more complicatedthan charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and get in touch with symbolsensor’s (CISs). Drum scanners are trickyto operateand technicians functionthese scanners by strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler cylinder rotating at topspeeds across the sensor (Sullivan 1996).
3.2 Flatbed scanners

the most well liked scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. this kind of scanner is very versatile as it’s in a position toscan flat objects in addition to small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners functionby strikingthe object to be scanned on a tumbler window at the same time asscanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is findd to scan transpahireoriginals this type ofs slides or x-rays, and an automated document feeder is out there for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000).
3.3 Sheet-fed scanners

Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent times, particularly for small office or domestic use because the y seem to be affordable, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). maximummodels of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to triumph over the factorof manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. but the real process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner could lead to distortion because the picture to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). an additional limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are uncapable of scan three dimensional objects.
3.4 Slide scanners

this kind of scanner is findd to sam i able totems this type ofs slides that desirecareful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners don’t reflect gentlefrom the picture, but rather pass gentlethrough it. this permits these scanners to sourceadvancedresults without distortions due to mirrorive light. so that you can scan small and detailed items, these scanners have numerous esureat the scanning head which produces a top of the diversityresult. Slide scanners have a tendency to be costlier and not more versatile than flatbed and she or heet-fed scanners because the y’re limited to simplyscanning slides and picture. These scanners, however, are well matched for make use ofrs requiring top of the diversityscans of huge numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000).
3.fivehand-held scanners

hand-held scanners are compact, portable scanners that are onlydragged across a page manually to capture a picture. These scanners are straightforwardto make use of and economical to buy; however, their use is restricted to text of as much as 4inches in diameter that doesn’t require a topresolution. because of this, hand-held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. an additional disgood thing about hand-held scanners is thon the U.S.er should have a mildhand when scanning or the outcomeing symbolshall be distorted (Scanner tips 2000).
4. Scanner specifications

The performance of a scanner can also be examined when it comes to 4main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software.
4.1 Resolution

solutionis a measure of what number of pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. it’s used to explawithin the volume of detail in a picture (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). uppersolutionscanners are sometimescostlier and bring advancedresults because the y have got an idealer capatownto capture detail. Scanners have two kinds of resolutions: optical solutionand that interpolated resolution.

Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of what number of pixels a scanner ca really read. A curhiremodel desktop scanner typically has a solutionof three00 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999). which means this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it maysample 300 dpi in a single direction and three00 dpi within the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. a fewscanners preventthe scanning head more regularlybecause it moves down the page, giving an optical solutionof three00 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more regularlyin a single direction doesn’t improve the results of the scan. the fundamental requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from picturesor other printed originals is an optical solutionof 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical solutionis 1200 dpi.

Interpolated solutionmeasures the choice of pixels a scanner is in a position topredict. A scanner can turn a three00 x 300 dpi sam i able tonto a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking outin-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have gave the impression of if it were scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the real ones scanned. this system is less exactthan optical resolution; but it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images.
4.2 Bit depth

Bit intensityrefers back to the volume of knowledge scanner records for eachpixel when converting a picture to digital form. Scanners differ within the quantityof knowledge they record for eachpixel within a picture. the most undeniabletypes of scanners only record knowledgeassociated withblack and white informationand feature a little intensityof one (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit intensityrequired for scanning photographs and documents is two4-bits, at the same time asslides, negatives or transparencies want a scanner without a less than 30-bits.

Thus for a scanner to sourcea top of the diversityscan with colour, a better bit intensityis needed. generally, curhirescanners have a little intensityof two4, this means that that 8 bits of knowledge can also be collected for the 3 basiccolours utilized in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This topsolutionallows scanners to sourceimages with reference to photographic quality.
4.3 Dynamic range

Dynamic diversityrefers back to the measurement of the form of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and four.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners typicallyhave a dynamic diversityof two.4. a form of this measurement is uncapable of professionalvide top of the diversitycolour scans. A dynamic diversityof two.8 and three.2 is suited for professionalfessional purposes and will also be present in high-finishscanners. a smartupperdynamic diversityof three.0 to three.8 can also be provided by drum scanners.
4.4 Software

A scanner, like all form of hardware, requires software. Typically the 2 most typical pieces of sentimentalware supplied with scanners include optical personalityrecognition (OCR) and that symbolediting software. Optical personalityrecognition software translates the tips recorded in a scan, tiny dots, right into a text file which will also be edited. symbolediting software allows the tones and hues of a picture to be manipulated for better printing and display. symbolediting also gives filters to use lighting tricks to scanned images
5. Future developments

the popularof scanned images is continuingly improving as characteristics this type ofs resolution, bit-intensityand dynamic diversityare enhanced and additionaldeveloped. More complicatedsymbolediting and optical personalityrecognition software progressioncould also be leading to advancedquality scans. Future advances are expected to result within the incorporation of specialised scanners into other forms of technology this type ofs the hotly developed camera. This device allows the U.S.er to take pictures of 3-dimensional objects similar to a popularcamera, except s opposed to employingfilm, the things are scanned by the camera in an identical process to the thrillctioning of a flatbed scanner.

The relatively new area of sensor technology within the type of a contact symbolsensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is predicted to decoratethe thrillctionality of scanners and the popularof pictures because it “replaces the cumbera fewoptical reduction technique with a single row of sensors” (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have alin a positionbeen capable of professionalduce a CIS scanner that is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and less dearto fabricate than a popularCCD base device. However, the popularof the sam i able tos inferior to its counterparts. extraprogressionof CIS technology is had to decoratesymbolquality and colour, and so as to adclothethe factorof a limited 300 or 600 dpi.
6. Conclusion

This report has identified five kinds of scanners currently available. a feware primarily used for professionalfessional purposes this type ofs the drum scanner; others are used more broadly within the workplace and residential this type ofs flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialised purposes have even been identified this type ofs slide and handheld scanners. The performance of those scanners depends at their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic diversityand software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent times when it comes to weight, size, worthand speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is expected to sourceextrabenefits to those spacesin addition to to scan quality. The impact of those improvements is predicted to extfinishthe accessibility of scanner technology to a much broader diversityof users and that its suitskillfor a much broader diversityof purposes. when it comes to this, the way forward for scanner technology seems to illustrate to the convergence of diversetechnologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other forms of technologies this type ofs cameras, printers, and photocopiers. this will also be expected to continue with other types of technology at the side of extraimprovements to symbolquality, speed, price, size and weight.

7. Reference list
Anderson, D. the pcGuide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm].
Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real globalscanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.
Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of pchardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272.
Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing datatechnology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145.
Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What’s now …What’s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00
Prepress, scanners, cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00
Scancushyscanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00
Sullivan. M. kinds of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00

report什么意思|report格式怎么写

如果大家有论文作业没写而自己又没时间时候不妨找我们美伦教育,成立七年已经累计为超过20000名留学生们代写作业,我们之所以能够发展到今天,都是因为在留学生大军中有这良好的口碑,绝对值得您信赖。如果有作业代写要求赶紧联系我们的网站在线客服吧。

个人陈述重点在于个性化

个人陈述是留学三文书中一种文书,是留学申请中必不可少的,为了帮助大家写好留学文书美仑小编为大家整理了相关资料为大家准备了这篇文章,希望对大家有所帮助!

个人陈述重点在于个性化
你已经花费了很多年的心血,完成了大学甚至是研究生的学习,你甚至可能又在随后的工作岗位上积累了更加宝贵的经验,现在又通过艰苦卓绝的努力成功地考过了IELTS、TOEFL和GRE。然而,你的任务并没有结束。你必须静下心来,有条不紊地处理多种文件,这其中个人陈述ps则是重中之重。需要忠告所有的留学申请者:必须抓住机会,充分且恰如其分地表现你的人格魅力、智慧和已取得的成就。写一份个人陈述要花大量的精力,单决不能草率从事。
怎样真正地把此项工作当作重中之重呢?并不是让你赶紧去买一本所谓范例或者网上找一篇范文然后照着抄,而是要借此机会严肃、认真和全面地审视自己的才能、潜能以及出国留学的目的。这种对自己的能力、向往和追求的透彻了解是写作个人陈述的基础。根据小编在国外求学、工作的朋友和我谈的经验来看,可以这么说,在写好个人陈述这件事上,中国留学生可以说是遇上了一个深层次而且是重大的文化差异。其中所谓“深层次”就是说这个差异不是西方人喝咖啡中国人喝茶、西方人称“Darling”而中国人称“孩子他妈”那样简单。
国外许多的大学录取评审者非常重视求职者、求学者对自身是否了解以及对自己的前途和目标是否明确。在他们的文化中,这样的自我了解被视为是人的素质中很重要的一部分。同时,他们也十分重视对此作出个性化表达的能力。我并不是要讨论文化问题,而是力求以最短的篇幅给申请人以最大的实用指导。切记不要把写作个人陈述一事当作官样文章而草率应付。国外教育机构的官僚主义常常更甚于我国,但要求写个人陈述,的确不是官样文章,而是给申请者一次表现自己的机会。请大家切记个人陈述要点个人陈述一定要写出自己的个性。
怎样判断个人陈述是否表达了自己的个性呢?最简单的办法就是看第二个人是否能写出一样的或是差不多的内容。真正富有个性的自我介绍是不可能与其他人的自我介绍雷同的。尽管有许多人有着看上去类似的求学、求职经历,但是每个人对学习、工作、事业和他人的感受应该是独特的。即使两个人所有的学习和工作经历都相同,也都计划去同一个领域深造,但是引发他们对该学科感兴趣的外部事物和内心感受也必定是有区别的。所以,在我们谈到写作个人陈述其他注意事项之前,首先要求申请者要独具创意。在写作时认真而全面地审视自己的方法就是默默地自问如下问题:
1. 对所要申请的学校和专业是否有了深入、细致的了解;能否做到在写个人陈述时紧扣学校和专业的要求及特点,突出自己的申请优势?
2. 我的人生经历中有什么独特的、非同寻常的地方?在我的家庭生活和社会生活中有哪些人或事件影响了我的人生观和事业追求?这些影响有什么与众不同的地方?
3. 我最初是如何对目前所选专业感兴趣的?我在其后的岁月中又是如何加深了对这一学科领域的认识的?我在这一领域已经取得了什么样的成绩?是什么因素使我相信自己能够在这一领域有所建树?
4. 在上学期我从事了哪些助教、助研、社会实践或暑期工作?通过这些活动在什么方面得到了提高(比如科研能力、组织能力和领导能力等)?在步入社会后的工作中完成过什么项目?取得了哪些成就?表现出何等才干?
5. 我最终的事业目标是什么?
6. 我多年来的考试成绩有没有需要解释的地方?比如:大学成绩一直很优异,但GRE成绩却不怎么理想;高年级的成绩是否比低年级的成绩有显著提高?
7. 在自我奋斗的过程中是否需要克服超常的困难,如家庭生活贫困、身体残疾等?
8. 我是否具备杰出的品格,比如诚实、可靠、善良、刻苦等等?对此我能否提供真凭实据来加以证明?我是否具备值得一提的优秀的工作习惯和态度,以及品质上的优势。
9. 我具备什么样的特殊才能,如分析能力、领导才能和交流才能?我为什么比别的申请者更具有在事业上成功的把握?
以上内容就是本文围绕如何写出个性个人陈述ps这个问题做的介绍,通过我们的介绍,现在大家对写个性个人陈述ps应该有了更加细致的了解了。希望大家餐开了本文以后能写出自己和校方满意的个人陈述ps。

个人陈述重点在于个性化
如果大家在出国留学中有什么文书没有时间的可以来我们美伦,美伦到一定会帮你解决你的难题,大家在国外生活中有什么essay论文作业没有时间写,美伦也可以帮你完成,美伦会为你的留学保驾护航的。

美国留学研究生奖学金申请简历介绍信

在申请美国研究生的时候需要准备的申请材料有很多,其中个人简历对于美国奖学金的申请也很重要,那么在写作申请美国研究生简历时需要注意哪些内容和格式呢?下面就来看看具体的问题解答。

美国留学研究生奖学金申请简历介绍信

申请美国研究生简历申请奖学金资助中必不可少的一项材料。申请大学入学与奖学金资助,要准备一份合适的个人简历。在美国,个人简历就好像一个人的经历提纲一样,使审阅人很快对申请人有一个认识的框架,然后会根据推荐信、读书计划以及其他材料再进一步了解申请人各方面具体情况。个人简历的最大特点就是有很强的针对性,一个人可以根据不同的需要和申请目的有十几份甚至几十份不同的简历,申请奖学金资助的个人简历就要专门为申请奖学金资助来写,包括一切有利于申请奖学金的各项内容。通常来说,申请奖学金资助的个人简历内容应包含所学课程、所获奖励与荣誉、工作经历、发表论文、英文及其他语言水平、个人研究兴趣等几方面内容。

美式简历划分为四大部分:

个人信息:在简历的顶头正中央处写明自己的姓名,并用大写加黑体标出。并且姓名下面写清自己的永久居住地址、邮编、电话和常用的电子邮件地址。另外,在简历的个人信息的写作中绝对不能用缩写。

教育背景:申请人一定要以编年体的形式写清楚自己的教育背景。标明自己原来所毕业的院校的名称、在校学习的年限、授予了什么学位以及在校期间读了什么专业的学位。

工作背景:这一部分是美国大学教授最看重的一部分。在这一部分里,申请人要以从近到远的时间顺序表明自己所就职的公司的名称、职位、以及就职时间。另外更重要的是要以最简明的语言写出自己的工作描述,语言简洁并不意味着含糊不清,同时申请者要把自己的工作成绩详细的写明,最好以数据来作为支持。另外,每一项的工作描述不要超过两行。只有这样,美国大学的教授才会更加准确的判断申请人的背景、技能、兴趣、职业目标,并且判断申请人是否能给其所带的项目做出贡献。

美国留学研究生奖学金申请简历介绍信

其他支持性信息:以最短的文字说明自己在上学期间或在工作期间,是否参加过一些公益性活动或获得过什么奖项。这一部分不用写太多,保证简历在一篇内完成即可。

通过上面对申请美国研究生简历内容和格式要求的介绍,相信对于很多计划申请美国奖学金的人有所帮助。

写美国留学推荐信时需注意

美国留学文书是留学申请中的重要文书,为了写好留学申请文书想必大家都是用处了洪荒之力了吧,但是每年留学的人有那么多,千军万马过独木桥也不过如此罢!所以为了留学申请能引起审核官的认可得从细节上下手,本文为大家介绍了美国留学文书需要注意的事,大家可以参考参考。

写美国留学推荐信时需注意
应当适当提及自己的“缺点”
一封推荐信如果阐述的完全是被推荐的同学的优点,不免让人觉得有粉饰之嫌,如果能恰当地加入一些“缺点”,不仅能令推荐信真实,还会通过“似贬实褒”,反而突出了被推荐人的特殊气质,所以在推荐信中的要适当的加入一些缺点但缺点也不要写太多了。想想大家都在写自己的缺点,而你却提及了不算缺点的缺点。这样审核官对你的文章一定会多看两眼的。
例如计算机专业、数学专业乃至金融专业的同学,在推荐信中可以考虑加入这样的词句:“该生有时因为过分专注于研究工作而难以平衡生活各方面的关系,这不失为一种美中不足”。这句话似乎是在谈“缺点”,但很明显这样的“缺点”其实正是很多专业最渴望的“缺点”——废寝忘食的工作态度,从而使得“缺点”也为申请提供了巨大帮助。
推荐信里的缺点不要针对自己的专业
可以考虑针对你的专业, 不注重的地方, 写一些缺点。比如你以后是要做研究的, 你就不能说自己没耐心, 不注意细节,或者以后你是要跟人打交道多的, 你就不能说自己不善于和人相处, 交流等等,在这里小编为大家提一点建议,还是那句话提及一些不算缺点的缺点。推荐信里的缺点不要影响你所学专业,但是要看起来要真实一点,而且不能跟你其他部分写的有矛盾。
在推荐信中不要用尽所有表现人类美德、才华和优秀的形容词,却没有一个具体例证。在推荐信中适当提及缺点是非常有必要的,但是这个缺点最好不要针对自己所学的专业。

写美国留学推荐信时需注意
以上就是美仑小编为大家整理的有关美国留学文书需要注意的地方了,切记最好是提及一些缺点,但是要适当,如果大家没有时间写英语论文作业和其他文书的同学可以来我们美伦,美伦教育一定会竭尽全力为大家写出一篇好的英语论文作业。

留学Essay写作原则讲解

美国留学个人陈述怎么写才能让人眼前一亮呢?其实个人陈述写作没有我们想象的那么困难,只要坚持下面个人陈述写作的六个原则,你一定可以在申请者中脱颖而出。

留学文书写作原则讲解
1. 专业
你在你的个人陈述和RL里首先要写大量的专业性的东西,并且在写RL的时候尤其要以指导老师的口吻写很多你做实验的细节性的东西,并且说你如何解决了一些决定性的问题。因为谁都可以说自己做了什么什么很难的东西,可是如何让对方信服,就看这些细节性的东西了。
就象去骗签证官,如果你无法说出一两个专业名词的话,即使有大学毕业证书证明你是哪所学校什么专业毕业的,也不能让签证官相信你确实是去美国上学,而不是去打工或移民什么的。因为任何文件都可以造假,而你的思想是造不了假的。你要尽量把你的思想给反映出来。道理是一样的。
你一定要记住,美国的大学之所以给你奖学金,求着你去学他们的理工科专业,并不是因为你的英语学的比美国人好,GRE考的比美国人高,或是想给中国免费培养人才,而是你能为他们做实验,能给他们出文章,你在美国攻读学位期间所做的工作将会或大或小的为美国的经济发展做出贡献,尽管也许一时还看不出来。所以,专业原则是最重要的一个原则。
你可以在写作的时候出一点小错误(当然最好是没有),也许你的辞藻不是很华丽,但是,这些小纰漏都可以原谅,我相信美国大学的录取老师不会就这些表面的东西抓住不放,因为你的母语毕竟不是英语,但如果你对自己的专业一无所知的话,这就不可原谅了!
2. 个性
我相信申请出国的大多数人都不是牛人。当你不是牛人,无法向对方吹嘘自己是多么的聪明的时候,你就必须向对方展现自己的个人魅力。当你坐在计算机前开始写作的时候,你一定要想清楚自己是什么样的人,自己有什么优点。如果你不能让对方相信你的聪明和爱因斯坦是同数量级的(这种人指的是毕业于名校,GPA在3.8以上),那么你就应该让他相信你的勤奋或是坚韧的毅力与阿甘相比有过之而无不及,——–当然你也可以想出你的其他优点。
不过,你也不要把我的意思弄拧了,我并不是说,你不能说自己是聪明的,而是说,你或许可以着更多的笔墨在你的勤奋上。毕竟,聪明仅仅是成功的一个因素,而你的毅力,合作力等等可能是成功更重要的因素。你应该善于揣摩对方的心理,要知道,不管是中国的导师还是外国的导师都希望自己的学生把大部分时间花在实验上,而且做事要有责任心,要有百折不挠的勇气,而有时聪明的学生可能这方面做的并不很好。
3. 优势突出原则和实话
这两个原则本来都不想写,因为觉得谁都应该知道的,可是考虑到可能还是有人没能明白这个原则,所以还是得写。我丈夫就是这样的。他的第一篇PS给我看了,他谈到了他父亲的死对他的影响,谈到了要为中国的富强做出贡献(看的我好感动),可是他对自己人生的闪光点却只字未提。我对他说要重写,而且第一篇一个字也不能保留。他的PS应该是这样的:他于某某年以全年级第一名的成绩被保送到北京大学化学系(并且此时要注明全年级有多少人),并且北京大学是全中国排名第一的大学。
又因为在北京大学学习优秀,在多少多少人中脱颖而出,在某某年获得年级或系里的奖学金。并且又于某某年因为在多少人中排名多少名,被著名的北京大学保送到著名的中国科学院读研究生,等等。下面的就不用我说了吧,反正你曾经获得过什么奖励,获得过什么特殊的机会是一定要写明白的。
对了,还有你的最有说服力的优势,就是你发表的论文。你的文章是在什么杂志上发表的,这个杂志有没有被SCI收录,SCI影响因子是多少,也一定要写清楚。这可是重头戏,对你的录取有极大帮助。所以大家千万不要小看你的文章,而且如果有可能的话,尽量往国外杂志上发。
然后是实话原则。从小在中国的政治课中教育出来的中国学生们喜欢喊口号,回忆一下我们上的作文课,语文老师谆谆教导我们写作文立意要新,眼光要高,最后都要归结为要为四化做贡献这样的大而宽的主题中去。可是,有谁能真正相信自己学习的最内在的动力是为祖国做贡献呢?写PS的时候不是展现你的爱国心的地方。一个一直在社会主义下成长和受教育的人尚且不会相信你拿学位的最大动力是因为爱国,更何况是一个西方思想的老外?
所以你宁可把自己讲的普通一些,也不要给别人留下不诚实的印象。不过,你一定要谈你学习某某专业的动机,最好也最普通的动机是你的兴趣,或是你对未来事业的设想,但是,不管你写什么,你一定要让对方相信这确实是你最内在也是最直接的动机。—–既然写了,就一定要写的象些。
4. 自信原则
美国人喜欢自我表现,他们喜欢自信的人。不管你是写个人陈述,还是去见签证官,或是以后在课堂上做presentation,你都要牢记这个原则。所以自信原则是贯穿于你的PS始终的。你要象展示你的传家宝一样自信的向他们展示你闪光点,也要以expert的语气大谈你做过的课题。所有你的这些语气,都会为你赢得不少分数的。
5. 清楚
所谓的清楚原则,就是你的个人陈述中没有任何有疑问的地方。就象写专业论文一样,如果有缩写,在出现的第一次,你一定要写出它的全称,打个括号写上缩写(当然是除了众所周知的,譬如GRE,TOEFL之类的)。如果你拿过奖学金,一定要象我在优势突出原则中写的那样,要注明是在多少人的竞争中拿到的。并且,你上的大学排名多少也一定要注明。因为外国人是不可能非常清楚地了解中国大学的情况的,所以你一定要给别人留下清楚的感觉。这样,你的才华才不会被埋没。

留学文书写作原则
6. 简洁
这个原则来源于我看到的OF156表上,申请学生签证时必须填的学习计划。以后大家会看到,这一项中给的空格特别小,估计也只够写下30-40字的,而学习计划则是多么庞大的一个课题啊!老公不禁抱怨美国人小气,那么节省纸张。其实,美国人倒不是为了节省纸张,而是为了节省时间。不会有人会有时间去看你的冗长的叙述的,所以你一定要写的简洁。我认为一篇PS以一张半A4纸为宜,最多也不能超过两页。
一封RL也就一页纸。但是,你在这么少的篇幅里一定要写出你的个性。如果能用一句话写的,千万不要用两句话。有效的用一些同位语插入,缩短你的篇幅,当然这是以句子流畅为前提的,不要把文章写的象GRE的阅读那么晦涩难懂。每段开头最好有一个topic sentence,这样让看的人可以最快的抓住主题,不要让人家看半天也不知道你想说什么。反正要用最短的篇幅反映最多的内容。
譬如说我给老公在OF156表上写的学习计划是这样的:某某领域,在中国正方兴未艾,而美国某某大学的某某教授是这个领域的领头羊,我相信我在某某大学学习这个专业一定会对我回到中国后,在这个领域的发展起到巨大的促进作用的。基本上两句话就够了,既说明了你学这个专业的目的,也说明了你为什么回国。
以上就是给大家分析的美国留学个人陈述怎么写,具体的写作还要靠大家去自己把握。个人陈述写好后,最好给英文好的人看一下,再请自己专业的人看一下。多找几个人最好。

留学生论文总结写法

学校为了培养学生综合运用所学知识和技能的能力,一般都会要求撰写毕业论文,毕业论文的好坏可以说直接关乎能否顺利毕业。经历了种种磨难,终于到了论文收尾的时候,可是论文的总结可是不能乱写一通的,那样会影响论文的整体质量。那么如何写毕业论文的总结?论文总结怎么写?
美伦教育指出总结是一篇论文的结尾部分,是围绕本论所作的结束语。是以研究成果为前提,经过逻辑推理和论证所得出的最后总结。论文总结基本的要点就是总结全文,加深题意。总结写作要求必须简明扼要、逻辑严谨、表达准确,而且还必须有条理性。在总结中应明确指出论文研究的成果或观点。
留学生论文总结写法
毕业论文总结的写作要求
①论文的总结位于论文正文的最后一章,需单独排写,不用加章号。
②论文总结的字数一般600-800字左右.
③论文总结应包含论文研究的成果或观点,并简单描述研究中存在的不足,为他人继续研究指明方向。
④论文总结应起到结束全文的作用,一般不要提出新的观点或材料,这是它与论文摘要的不同之处。
留学生论文总结写法
英国论文网表示总结应是整篇论文的结局、是整篇论文的归宿,而不是正文中各段的简单重复。一份付出了巨大努力的论文,各部分都要精益求精才能撰写一部出色的论文。可不能因为总结而导致前功尽弃。如果您对论文写作有任何疑问,都可以直接咨询英国论文网在线客服,我们会依据您的要求和自身教育情况,为您量身打造专属您的论文,助您轻松完成论文写作。
英国论文网源提供专业论文写作、留学文书撰写、语法校正、学术翻译,还提供Turnitin检测保证文章100%原创,作为Turnitin检测官方合作伙伴,支持多次提交保证100%不被收录。为了更好更全面的提供服务,优易论文还提供长达2个月的免费论文修改服务。英国论文网旨在为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

美国留学申请文书需注意的细节

美国留学的时候留学文书最是让人伤透了脑筋,不知道为了这留学文书杀死了多少脑细胞。如何在短短的留学文书中给AO留下好的印象?想必莘莘学子都是八仙过海,各显神通。难免其中有人想出奇制胜,写些极端或者偏激的话题来吸引眼球。个人认为有些话题还是要小心处理,以免偷鸡不成蚀把米。

美国留学申请文书需注意的细节
1.、Drug use\Time in Jail
美国各大学每年都有令人头疼的各种校园犯罪新闻,而申请人在未进入大学已经有这些可能为学校带来负面影响的经历,如果申请人有一些负面影响就需要注意了,我想每个AO都不会选择如此“impressed”的候选人。
2、 Heroism
虽然美国大片很喜欢展现个人印象主义,超人、美国队长、蜘蛛侠、蝙蝠侠等等形象深入全世界。毕竟电影是虚构的,现实中大学AO是不喜欢看到过多宣扬个人英雄主义的文书。很多申请人会写自己如何独力获胜足球比赛或者改变一个朋友的人生,难道你不觉得谦虚和礼让不比狂妄自大更讨喜吗?所以还是得多谢谢谦虚合作的文字,这样的文章AO才会喜欢。
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旅行会丰富你的生活经验,深挖细写是可以成为一个美妙的申请文书。然而,这种过多申请人写的话题若是没有处理好,就会成为一篇流水账,因为很多留学申请者都爱写这一方面的文章,切记不要大众化。你要做的不仅仅是突出事实,而应该深入分析的一个有趣的经验。比如你去美国玩一圈,你能具体分析某些细节吗?比如美国超市可乐价格与中国超市可乐价格的差异,或者美国特有的In & Out 为何比麦当劳好吃等等。切入点可以很小,但一定要有细节描述和自己的想法。
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也许你用一些糟糕的经历作为切入点,如亲人病故、父母离异、生病辍学等,你可以描述这些事情发生后的感受,以及如何克服各种沮丧的情绪。但千万不要描述因此成绩滑落、离家出走或者做了其他一些错事坏事,因为这样AO会认为你在为自己的不良行为找借口和托辞,这不是一个思想成熟的人应该有的做法。

美国留学申请文书细节
6.、List of Accomplishments
申请表上大把空位让你罗列自己获过什么学术性或者非学术性的奖项、参加过什么义工活动、社会实践、有什么兴趣爱好等。千万不要在申请文书上再重复罗列这些事情,这样只会让你白白浪费一个展现自己的机会。切记,一个乏味的活动清单绝对不是一篇好文章。

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英文论文的写作开题报告是很重要的一部分,由于是英语论文的关系很多同学在写起来会很麻烦,所以为了方便大家的写作小编特地为大家发表了这篇英文论文开题报告范文function and application of。下文为范文,希望这篇文章对大家有所帮助!

英文论文开题报告范文

功能和描述翻译应用研究,介绍了这项研究的目的,是探索描述翻译研究的可能优势在其翻译实践和翻译ANALY应用..

1引言

这项研究的目的是探索描述翻译研究的优势可能在其在翻译实践和翻译分析中的应用。

自20世纪初,翻译研究逐渐脱离了其他相关学科中的边缘地位路程,确立了其作为一门经验科学。从那时起,思想学派一直保持现身,每个声称其合法性的存在。这些学校之间是描述性的翻译研究(DTS)。

DTS从实证的角度来看待翻译。翻译被认为是具有在接收培养和目标社区显著重要的社会活动。因此,翻译处理超越语言的实现方式和语言进行比较,并在社会和文化背景结合。

我的注意力首先导演的观察,描述和解释其特有的特点为DTS。主体在翻译实践中无论发生什么事,从翻译的预期功能的决心译者的选择策略,头脑风暴和修改的过程,到最终产品制造的目标社区的外观。

DTS的方法基本上是描述性的。指令性趋势和问题解决模式被放弃。翻译现象记录下来。与积累的数据,关于翻译的一些潜在的真相就会出来,这将被证明是不仅是理论探讨,也为应用翻译实践指导意义。我将在本文的案例研究应用此描述方法。

一个方便的工具已经成立来进行DTS。 “规范”是在描述和解释的每个阶段工作。功能,工艺和产品以及它们以及关系是什么构成了描述性研究的骨骼结构。翻译现象占与规范的帮助。

本文采取的案例是中国经典红楼梦的梦想。分别杨宪益和大卫鹰派译英译本进行比较和意见对于其翻译的方法进行。

在这方面,我的意见限于几个方面,我希望深入观察和说明中的dts的光进行。

2大纲

2.1开发和DTS的主要概念

在这一部分,我将描述霍尔姆斯“DTS的基本地图之间的功能,工艺和产品的关系。

2.2 methodolgy

我将在这部分讨论DTS的方法之前,我采用相同的,以本文重点案例研究要放在符号学方法和概念常态。

2.3 DTS在对比其他理论

对比研究将在这里与目标进行,以找到DTS的其他理论,如等理论和中国信达雅的标准差。一些优势将可能在本次研究中显示。

2.4案例研究

在这部分的红楼梦梦(又译石头的故事)的翻译将是下DTS光调查。在这里引述的翻译样品将在兰多被选中

2.5结论

基于DTS的上述阐述和案例研究,结论可能会在翻译的具体研究DTS的优势。进一步的研究工作的建议也将被制成。

(注意:当主题将保持不变,内容的上述安排可能在写作过程中改变。)

附录2 – 引文范例(仅供参考)

“这是毫无意义的,因此要尽量让TC更加科学比鉴于其复杂的主题和方法也懂事了。 。翻译是不能穷尽一个语言框架,忽略了翻译的人内调查了精神,多因素的活动“(威尔斯,1982:217)

‘“噢,这就是恐水病吧?你们贵族圈子怎么流行起这种病来啦?真够呛的!费芬斯小姐,您喝点茶大概没关系吧!”’(张南峰,1990:59-60)

附录3参考文献范例(仅供参考)

威尔斯,钨。问题和方法 – 翻译的科学。冈特NARR蒂宾根出版社,1982年。

纽马克,彼得。翻译的教科书。纽约:Prentice Hall出版社,1988年。

delabastita,德克。双关语翻译:翻译研究一个虚假的反对。目标,1991(3:2):137-152。

国际关系学院

对外经济贸易大学

务实的策略

广告:含意

王颖

提交给国际关系学院的论文

对外经济贸易大学

在需求部分履行

对于艺术硕士学位

时间:XXXX

北京,中国

function and application of descriptive translation studies 1 introduction the intention of this study is to explore possible advantages of descriptive translation studies as in its application in translation practice and translation analy..

function and application of descriptive translation studies

1 introduction

the intention of this study is to explore possible advantages of descriptive translation studies as in its application in translation practice and translation analysis.

since early 20th century, translation studies gradually broke away from the marginal status within other related disciplines and established itself as an empirical science. from then on, schools of thought have kept coming out and each claims its legitimacy for existence. among these schools is descriptive translation studies (dts).

dts approaches translation from an empirical perspective. translation is viewed to be a social activity having significant importance in the receiving culture and for the target community. therefore, translation is dealt with beyond the linguistic realization and language comparison, and is incorporated in social and cultural context.

my attention was first directed to dts by its peculiar characteristic of observation, description and explanation. the subject is whatever happens in translation practice, from the determination of prospective function of translation to the process of translator’s choice of strategies, brainstorming and the revision, to the final product making appearance in the target community.

the method of dts is basically descriptive. the prescriptive tendency and the problem-solution pattern is abandoned. translation phenomena are noted down. with accumulated data, some underlying truths about translation will come out which will prove to be instructive not only for theoretical probe but also for applied translation practice. i will apply this descriptive method in the case study of this thesis.

a convenient tool has been set up to conduct dts. “norm” is operative at every stage of description and explanation. function, process and product and their relationship as well are skeletal structure of what constitute descriptive studies. translation phenomena are accounted for with the help of norm.

the case taken in this thesis is the chinese classic the dream of red mansions. two english versions translated respectively by yang hsien-yi and david hawks are compared and observations are made in regard to their translation approaches.

in this regard, my observations are limited to several aspects, i hope in-depth observation and explanation will done in light of dts.

2 outline

2.1 development and major concepts of dts

in this part i will describe holms’ basic map of dts and the relationship between function, process and product.

2.2 methodolgy

i will in this part discuss the methodology of dts before i apply the same to the case study in this thesis with emphasis to be placed on semiotic approach and the concept norm.

2.3 dts in contrast to other theories

a contrast study will be conducted here with the objective to find the difference of dts from other theories such as equivalence theory and the chinese xin da ya criteria. some advantage will possibly be shown in this study.

2.4 case study

in this part, translation of the dream of red mansions (also translated as the story of the stone) will be under investigation in light of dts. translation samples to be quoted here will be selected at rando

2.5 conclusion

based on the above elaboration of dts and the case study, possible conclusion will be on the advantage of dts in specific study of translation. suggestions on further research efforts will be made also.

(note: while the topic will remain the same, the above arrangement of contents is subject to change in the process of writing.)

附录2- 引文范例(仅供参考)

“it is therefore pointless to try to make tc more scientific than is sensible in view of its complex subject-matter and available methods. translating is a mental, multi-factorial activity which cannot exhaustively be investigated within a linguistic framework ignoring the person of the translator.”(wilss, 1982: 217)

‘“噢,这就是恐水病吧?你们贵族圈子怎么流行起这种病来啦?真够呛的!费芬斯小姐,您喝点茶大概没关系吧!”’(张南峰,1990:59-60)

附录3- 参考文献范例(仅供参考)

wilss, wolfram. the science of translation – problems and methods. gunter narr verlag tubingen,1982.

newmark, peter. a textbook of translation. new york: prentice hall, 1988.

delabastita, dirk. translating puns: a false opposition in translation studies. target, 1991(3:2):137-152.

school of international studies

university of international business and economics

pragmatic strategies

in advertising: implicatures

wang ying

a thesis submitted to school of international studies of

university of international business and economics

in partial fulfillment of the requirement

for the degree of master of arts

XXXX

beijing, china

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有效的重新视野需要建立你自己和你所生产的东西之间的距离。这使你能够阅读你的作品,就好像你是为谁写的观众的一部分。

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逻辑上的任何休息?

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您可以从任务的研究方法模块如果还是相关的硕士研究借鉴。此没有标记,但证明是在与主管的初步讨论非常有用的。它也将作为你的研究兴趣在论文日的呈现,这将在论文期间开始组织一个基本的。

Essay写作计划详解

没有标准的形式,论文提议必须采取;每个主题和研究需要的个体性可能会建议一个特殊的格式或建议的类型。但一般情况下,建议书应包括以下信息或回答下列问题:

论文主题:什么是建议?它有哪些限制(在一段时间内,被检查的地理区域,组织和理论等)这应该在提案的开头就说。

意义:为什么主题重要?它可以摆脱什么光在更大的通信问题,或者其他什么方式,可能是我们的领域做出贡献?足够的兴趣,该论文很可能是发布的主题?

理论框架:哪些理论和理论概念将在你的论文中使用?为什么?他们如何与你的学科领域?他们怎么能解释正在审议的现象?

方法:将论文的地址,以及它将如何试图回答什么类型的问题?哪些研究方法是最合适的使用考虑到你的限制?

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材料来源:什么是资源相关的话题? (例如技术工具,特别是组织,档案文件,罕见的出版物等)在哪里这些来源?是否有其中的任何访问的问题呢?

完成的工作:有多远,你已经进步到学习?它也可适当提这个问题的兴趣的起源,已经采取了相关的课程,等等。

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外形:外形及建议表的论文的内容作为目前设想。

参考书目:这可能是一个选择的书目,让最重要的作品,并建议主题相关的文学的范围。

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文献综述主要是介绍与主题有关的详细资料、动态、进展、展望以及对以上方面的评述。所以说文献综述的格式也相对多样,但总的来说,一般都包含以下四部分:即前言、主题、总结和参考文献。写文献综述时可按这四部分拟写提纲,再根据提纲进行撰写工作。那么具体如何写文献综述呢?

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写作之前

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缩小您的话题。获得窄,你可能可以同时还具有必要的资源量。研究出生顺序可能会导致您几十本书;同性兄弟姐妹就读出生顺序会让你的源更快,更易于管理的搜索。

获取当前。如果你是在人文,历史或社会科学写的评论,你可以买得起用时间不太关注(事实上,改变整个历史的观点可能是你的论文的一个方面)。但是,如果你正在写一部文学审查的科学,比如说,在治疗糖尿病,从5年前的信息可能已经过时。通过排序当前书目或文学评论领域得到你的纪律所期待的感觉。

查找焦点。不幸的是,你不只是搜集的来源和总结他们有什么可说的。你应该考虑什么样的主题和想法你的源代码连接在一起。想想这些书作为你的一群朋友在同一主题的所有争论。什么是他们都假设?他们如何同样,他们如何不同?

字里行间。你不一定要找色情内容。是否有缺少现场的一个方面?是你的源都规定一个具体的理论?你看到的趋势正在显露呢?这将帮助你组织你的论文极大,什么会给你的论文的目的归零英寸

构建你的论文。现在,你已经找到你的注意力,它的时间来构建一个主题句。你也许会想,文学评论没有论文语句。这两个部分是真假:他们有论文,但他们完全不同。你的论文语句不一定会主张的位置或意见;相反,它会认为有关材料的特殊视角。

例如,“当前[专题]在趋势是A,B和C,”或“X战警理论假设大多数的来源,从1985年”。说明像这样引出了几个问题,让您的评论更有趣和有意义的:趋势将如何改变未来?如果假设的理论是错的?

再次,这并不是新的信息。你是不是分析材料来了,上面有你自己的,新的视角。你只是像个电脑 – 注意模式,孔洞,并假设所有的源服用。

评估你的源代码。你可以有最好的意图和散文的形式,说服持怀疑态度坚定,但如果你的源代码是没有生命力的,仅此而已。 Finito。确保您的源上的多个层面的评估。

什么是作者的凭据?他们的论据是如何支持(叙述,统计,历史的发现,等等)?

是作者的角度来看偏见和客观?难道他们忽略任何数据,使他们看起来点强?

他们是如何有说服力的是谁?做任何他们分离开有点不理想?

难道他们的工作导致的主题更深入的了解?

构建你的文献

开始了坚实的介绍。正如一切,第一印象关系。您的介绍应该给您的评论的话题进行快速的想法,无论是主题或组织模式。

让他们知道他们在什么样的车程,沿读者有所帮助。如果您采用的论文声明,把它向你介绍段落的末尾。最后,你的读者应该是期待进入纸张的证据和批量。

组织机构。在这里你有最多的选择的部分。你有许多来源,并且由于他们都在相同的主题,他们可能具有共同的负荷。选择哪种方式似乎是最自然的你的具体重点。

按时间顺序安排。如果你正在处理与时代不同的看法,或随着时间的推移不断变化的趋势,按时间顺序组织可能最有意义。

按出版安排。这种组织方式以及票价如果每个刊物有不同的立场。如果在源之间的自然发展(激进保守,例如),这工作顺顺当当。

由趋势安排。如果你注意到在你的源模式,由他们认为可能是最明显的结构趋势排列它们。某些源可以一起,建议移动随着时间的推移,区域或其它可变一个图案。

主题安排。这在很大程度上取决于你的论文声明,你选择什么样的来源。如果你选择一个重点是更抽象(“殖民主义被描绘成邪恶”为例),各小节可以布置在采用跨把主题的不同方法。

得出一个明确的结论。最后一段需要包你的文件,重申了在介绍说,讨论从学习至今所绘制的内容。

你可以让你的结论暗示。凡可能讨论进行,如果别人把它捡起来你离开的地方?什么是今天的来源的模式和孔的后果是什么?

使用的证据。随意组合多个来源的到你自己的话来的理由。您正在使用由专业的工程备份自己的话。

但是,使用引号谨慎。文献回顾的调查性质不允许进行深入的讨论,或从text.Some短的人都很好,请务必详细的报价,但一切的一切,应该由你来写。

保持你自己的声音。不,你不提出,从你自己的心灵的奇迹兴起的信息,但你还是应该开始和结束用你自己的话每个段落。你的声音应该保持前沿和中心。

当转述这是不是你自己的来源,一定要代表作者的信息或意见准确,用自己的话。然后,它与您的评论的上下文。

有些教授可能需要您评估的来源和总结这件加入该领域的最大的贡献。如果你是热衷于此,决定你采取引进和字符串它在你的论文。

修改你的工作

检查指导。有些教授喜欢他们的论文一定的方式。请确保你不仅满足内容准则,但符合格式指引,太。

你是否需要教练APA格式?应该怎样你的利润有多大?页眉,页脚,脚注和页码?他们怎么想你的名字,标题和副标题?他们怎么想你的作品引用页面?

检查连贯流动和转换。这是最好坚持简洁明了写作,它并不总是容易明确是第一次尝试。回到了你的工作和改述所剩下的含糊不清或罗嗦。

一切说像白昼一样,它流动起来?你们好转型不仅一段段,但是从判决判?要确保你的证据线与支持,您的来源安排在逻辑上流动。

消除无用的行话或俚语。这一努力过程中,您可能已经长大了一个全新的词汇,但是你的教授还没有。编写能够被大众读报纸。不要让过于深奥。

校对你的工作。你有困难的部分了。现在,所有你需要做的就是去在它的拼写,语法和标点符号。以写作和校对的休息 – 你的大脑可能有点饱和。跳回到它当您准备好。

最好是让别人去了你的工作了。您可能已经读过很多次你再也不能看到你陷入葡萄牙心不在焉。一组不同的眼睛可以找到您可能没有看到错误,请你们没有意识到是没有得到解决的问题,或寻求对foggier点澄清。

How to Do a Literature Review

Some people might think of a literature review as reading a book and then giving it a thumbs up or thumbs down. Nope, not so. A literature review is a review of various pieces of literature on one topic, ranging from series of books to shorter pieces like pamphlets. Sometimes, the literary review is a part of a larger research paper. Its purpose is to prevent duplication of efforts, resolve conflicts, and point the way for further research.

Before Writing

Clarify your professor’s requirements. Some instructors may ask you to do a literature review and not get more specific than that. Or, maybe they did and you were playing Plants vs Zombies. Either way, knowing precisely what your professor is looking for is the first step to getting that A.

How many sources should you include? Does he/she want a specific number of each type? Do they have to be at least semi-current?

In discussing your themes, are you just summarizing or critiquing? Some reviews require a thesis, some may not.

Should you offer your opinion on your sources?

Do you need to provide background information, such as definitions or histories, to aid in your audience’s understanding?

Is there a page or word requirement?

Narrow your topic. Get as narrow as you possibly can while still having the amount of sources necessary. Studying birth order may lead you to dozens of books; studying birth order of same-sex siblings will make your search for sources much quicker and more manageable.

Get current. If you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, you can afford to be less concerned with timing (in fact, changing opinions throughout history may be an aspect of your paper). But if you are writing a literary review for the sciences, say, on treating diabetes, information from 5 years ago could already be obsolete. Sort through current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.

Find a focus. Unfortunately, you are not just gathering sources and summing up what they have to say. You should be considering what themes and ideas connect your sources together. Think of these books as your group of friends all arguing on the same topic. What are they all assuming? How are they the same and how are they different?

Read between the lines. You’re not necessarily looking for explicit content. Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? Are your sources all prescribing to one specific theory? Do you see trends being revealed? This will help you structure your paper immensely, zeroing in on what will give your paper purpose.

Construct your thesis. Now that you’ve found your focus, it’s time to construct a thesis statement. You may be thinking that literature reviews don’t have thesis statements. That’s both partly true and false: They have theses, but they’re quite different. Your thesis statement will not necessarily argue for a position or an opinion; rather, it will argue for a particular perspective on the material.

For example, “Current trends in [topic] are A, B, and C,” or “The X Theory is assumed by most sources from 1985 on.” Stating something like this begs a few questions, making your review more interesting and meaningful: How will trends change in the future? What if the assumed theories are wrong?

Again, this is not new information. You are not analyzing the material and coming up with your own, fresh perspective on it. You are simply acting like a computer–noting patterns, holes, and assumptions all your sources are taking.

Assess your sources. You can have the best of intentions and a form of prose that convinces the staunchest of skeptics, but if your sources aren’t viable, that’s it. Finito. Make sure your sources are evaluated on a number of levels.

What are the author’s credentials? How are their arguments supported (narratives, statistics, historical findings, etc.)?

Is the author’s perspective unbiased and objective? Are they ignoring any data to make their points seem stronger?

How persuasive are they? Do any of their points leave a bit to be desired?

Does their work lead to a greater understanding of the subject?

Constructing Your Paper

Start with a solid introduction. As with everything, first impressions matter. Your intro should give a quick idea of the topic of your review, be it thematically or by organizational pattern.

Help the reader along by letting them know what kind of ride they’re in for. If you are employing a thesis statement, place it toward the end of your introductory paragraph. At the end, your reader should be anticipating getting into the evidence and bulk of your paper.

Organize the body. Here is the part where you have the most options. You have a number of sources and, since they’re all on the same topic, they probably have loads in common. Choose whichever way seems the most natural to you for your specific focus.

Arrange it chronologically. If you are dealing with varying opinions by era or changing trends over time, chronological organization may make the most sense.

Arrange it by publication. This organizational method fares well if each publication has a different stance. If there is a natural progression (radical to conservative, for example) between the sources, this works swimmingly.

Arrange it by trend. If you are noticing patterns in your sources, arranging them by the trends they suggest may be the most obvious structure. Certain sources may, together, suggest one pattern that shifts over time, region, or other variable.

Arrange it thematically. This highly depends on your thesis statement and what sources you have chosen. If you are choosing a focus that is more abstract (“Colonialism is depicted as evil,” for example), the subsections may be arranged on the different methods employed to put the theme across.

Come to a clear conclusion. The closing paragraph needs to wrap up your paper, reiterate what was said in the intro, and discuss what you’ve drawn so far from your studies.

You may make your conclusion suggestive. Where might the discussion proceed if someone else picked it up where you left off? What are the consequences of the patterns and holes in toda

想要写好Essay需要有批判性思考能力

想要写好Essay需要有批判性思考能力,只要拥有批判性思考的能力就能更加方便的写出一篇好的Essay

如果你的思维模糊或有缺陷的,你的决定可能会导致小于理想的后果。思维技巧很容易被认为是理所当然的。 “当然,我能想到的!”你可以对自己说。现在的问题是,如何你觉得呢?

好的Essay写作

价值客观存在的。如果是立足于现实我们的思维也只能是有效的。现实是客观的;它独立于自己的愿望,愿望,率性和目标存在。你的思维将是富有成效的,你是能够准确地感知和理解这一现实的程度。这需要客观-的分离“是什么”,从你可能要相信什么或可能会更舒服相信的能力。

保持开放的心态。一个封闭的头脑从现实切断。封闭的头脑思考者可以很容易地被识别;他或她有刚性一套不公开讨论的意见和态度。这样的思想者不能与理性的,因为这种方法涉及处理新的输入。如果你觉得如果你谈话的砖墙,你可能处理一个封闭的心灵思想家。然而,作为开放的态度并不意味着你不应该被真理站在你也知道了,或者是你必须接受的各个角度。真相会承受质疑;只是错觉是思想交流的威胁。

不要容忍持续的和非生产性的歧义。你面对的大部分决策包含一定程度的模糊性,明显的非黑即白的替代品之间的灰色地带。这不是不确定性的容忍一个参数;这是锻炼的思想,建立清晰的权力的建议。歧义往往是草率的,不完整的,或者的非理性思维的症状。当您遇到这样的状态,现在是时候仔细检查你的前提,你的原则,你的知识,你的思维过程的功效。知识是清晰的不确定性和混乱的渐进检索。

避免行列。当一个概念流行起来,很多人会赶时髦拥抱它。这通常更多的是整合的功能比它是批判性思维。看看(想想)你三思而后行。

观察和推理区分,即遵循既定事实与猜测之间。

扣压判断,直到你确定你有足够的信息。这可能是很有诱惑力的妄下结论,但你可能在你没有看到一个洞结束。在另一方面,一旦你有足够的信息,不要犹豫,使基于它的判断。判断是思维过程的一部分,你的能力的应用程序来对现实的结论。

保持幽默感。你可以不直想如果一切好像生死你的问题。的能力,自嘲和看到的情况幽默往往可以帮助你保持思想和观点的清晰度。但是,提防用作武器的笑声诋毁你的价值或作为一个心理防线;这些用途需要认真回应。

培养求知欲。这个世界充满了事情你还不知道。好奇心是一个初衷就是自由和开放的现实的奇迹,不怕面对未知,才能掌握新知识的迹象。一位好奇的思想家将探索看待事物和处事方式新。如果你培养一颗好奇的心学习能不断的和令人兴奋的发现的冒险之旅。

不要拿东西的表面价值。在幼年时,我们大多数人学会不相信我们听到的一切。想象一下,你会是多么失望,如果你相信你在电视广告听到索赔!此相同原则应适用于附带通过媒体,甚至什么是作为其他信息“新闻”。其目的是要咀嚼(有时吐出),而不是整个吞下!谨防包装隐藏的真相。有时与前面看上画面一个大箱子承担什么是藏在里面的关系不大。打开它,看看自己!

挑战传统智慧。每一种文化是基于一定的假设去很大程度上毋庸置疑。伽利略,意大利天文学家和数学家,被宗教裁判所前,因为他敢于质疑“真相”,认为地球是宇宙的中心带来的。即使在今天,扁平地球协会的成员表示相信,世界是平如煎饼!你不能假设真理确实是真的什么是普遍接受的。真理是由理性思维建立的,而不是由一个民意调查和过去的做法。

抵制呼吁情感。情感有时会影响你的原因。如果你生气或欣喜若狂,你的思考过程将不会以同样的方式,当你在一个更冷静的心情工作。谨防在你的情绪被故意刺激(由奉承,恐惧或anticipations当你被要求做出决定的情况。这可能是操纵的结果的策略。

不要自动接受权威。权威上诉是一个最喜欢的广告噱头:好莱坞明星,体育人物,和流行文化的英雄被用来促进一切从早餐麦片内衣和腋下除臭剂。我们感到鼓舞认为,如果他(或她)说,这是伟大的东西,一定是!这样的权力得到支付数百万美元的他或她代言的事实可能是足以让你质疑他作为一个客观的权威。

谨防他人的自我取悦行为。奉承是说服的时间兑现方法。如果有人奉承开始,他们可能打算与你的思维还是在他们的口袋里的钱结束。这并不总是容易分辨真诚的赞美,旨在操纵你的陈述之间的区别。

要知道你自己的自我增强行为。决定通常可以通过您希望出现对自己或他人的影响。如果你过于担心保持给定的图像,你可能会做,说事情是不是真的在你自己的最佳利益。当你实现真正的自尊,基于外表的行为往往失去了吸引力。

维持透视感。当你在一个重要的事情之中,很容易失去对局势的平衡的观点。它往往是一个很好的做法,以“缩小”和查看此事在更大的范围内。一种方法建立的角度来看:在一到十的规模,一个是草和十个正在全球范围内的核毁灭刀片死亡,什么是你的情况率是多少?它是真正的关键,因为它似乎在那一刻?

要注意的潜规则。有时候,我们的行为方式是通过潜规则决定的。如果你不知道有这样的潜规则,你不会有你需要做出一个明智的决定的知识。如果你是在一个熟悉的情况下,机会是你知道规则(例如:不捣乱,不问老板,不要挑战教授)。如果你是在一个陌生的情况下(或外来文化),就可以支付是不同寻常的观察力和质疑那些更熟悉情况。这并不是说,你应该由这样的规则的限制,只有它们中的一个认识是可取的。

请注意非语言行为的线索。言语交流的影响不到你从别人收到消息的一半。消息的其余部分是通过非言语行为传递。您将通过双方的影响。如果有人充当友好而痛苦地挤压你的手握手,你可能有理由怀疑他或她在说些什么!如果有人在他的椅子上,打呵欠向后伸,同时告诉你他是在你的想法如何兴趣同样适用。情况的事实更清楚你的观念中,清晰的你的思维会。

在压力下,停下来思考。冲动的决策往往会导致决策失误。至于决策的压力增大,诱惑做出冲动的决定也随之增加。您可以认为任何决定比优柔寡断更加合理化这一点;这是很少如此。优柔寡断往往是较差的决策技能的结果。冲动仅仅保证你将收获决策失误的后果更快!

看到超越标签和成见。标签和成见是一种精神的简写,可以方便的思维和沟通。如果您需要设计一个坐四条腿的一件家具,更容易要求一个椅子上,忽略设计和材料的许多可能的变化。不过,如果你正在调查可能的职业选择,你不应该满足于参与你想知道到底什么是真正的意思是一个警察,脑外科专家,或金融分析师职业的刻板描述。同样,处理来自不同背景和文化背景的人受到严重损害的陈腐观念掩盖真相的阻碍。

铲除消极的自我谈话。大部分的思维传递什么真的自我对话子的声音,你不断地与自己进行交谈。这种自我暗示往往需要关键的判断和对自己态度的形式。你的思维能力可以通过自我对话,超过并传达负面的信息一再被削弱,强化负面的自我形象(“我不能做任何事情的权利”,“我只是不一样聪明的其他人”)或态度( “我还是不相信任何人”,“学校是浪费时间”)。除非这种消极的思想受到挑战和更积极的自我对话取代的时候,会以不希望的方式来影响你的决定。在这种变化的基本要素是自尊的培养。心理咨询是一个很好的解决了这类问题。

寻找一致性。爱默生曾经写道:“愚蠢的一致性是小小的心灵的妖怪。”一个深思熟虑的一致性,但是,仔细和彻底的思维特点。一致性和逻辑都应该适用于你考虑什么标准。不一致经常被用来掩盖真相。

实践同情。还有,你应该作出判断前,走在他人的鹿皮鞋一英里印度的说法。换句话说,你不应该评判别人,直到你完全了解他们的情况。通过实施这种类型的同情,你会减少使得瞬间判断,你可能以后会后悔的可能性。你也可能会发现一点理解便于深入了解其他人和他们的行为。更深层次的洞察自己和他人,明智你的决定会。

花时间去核对事实。如果你没有澄清事实,你的决定有可能被扭曲。在一些重要的事情,你应该尝试获得对相关事实的第一手资料的访问。如果你想做出一番事业的决定,并想了解一下您的职业技能,最好是采取一种能力倾向测试,而不是问你的哥们,他们认为什么是“你擅长的。”同样,最好是找到工作的性质对于给定的职业,根据公认的参考和工人的访谈,而不是依赖于刻板印象,可能是满偏真理,显著遗漏。请检查您的信息的可靠性。它是否来自可靠的消息来源?你可以发现,确认您的另一个信息来源?如果你能肯定回答这些问题,你可以更自信,你作为你的决策依据使用的事实。

检查您的信息的有效性。信息可能是可靠的,但无效。有效性具有的信息,其中被施加它的上下文的相关性有关。它可能是一个可靠的事实,当你划火柴,火会导致 – 除非你是在水下还是在太空真空!语境很重要!

培养听力技巧。当涉及到谈话中,你听到的就是你得到的。倾听是另一种技能,我们往往想当然,但很少以最有效的,我们认为利用。有多少次你一直在交谈中,突然意识到对方问你,你没听到的问题吗?多久你这么跟你自己的想法全神贯注在课堂上,你调出来的教练?它发生在我们所有人,这说明练这个看似简单的技能的难度。你听好了,更多的正确的信息,你将获得;你有更多的正确的信息,更好的决定,你会做。

要知道非逻辑思维的。有专门的逻辑,并且其中它可以被扭曲的方式整个哲学书。刻板印象往往是基于不合逻辑的思考,没有事实依据核实的应用在通用的方式具体特点,或假设两个不相关的事件之间的因果关系。广告通常鼓励不合逻辑协会:牛肉被吹捧为“以粮为真实的人”(什么“不真实”的人吃什么?),和洁白的牙齿或右除臭似乎在你的脚下,以保证辣妹(或帅哥)的一群(在哪里佳洁士?)。这似乎是显而易见的,这样的说法是荒谬的,但有人支付大笔资金,这些广告是有原因的!

听从你的直觉。我们每个人都有对事物在同一时间或另一种预感。这些预感往往是信息登记在比自觉意识其他级别的结果。这是当你感觉到有人盯着你,只为查找和发现它是真实等。有没有合理的理由相信有人在找你吗,但它在某种程度上仍然注册。直觉不能采取逻辑思维的地方,但它可以被开发作为一种有价值的补充。试图通过更多地了解你的直觉,你可以增加你的敏感性,这种信息。当你学会测试,并相信它,它可以提高你的决策能力。

 

How to Develop Critical Thinking Skills

If your thinking is fuzzy or flawed, your decisions may lead to less than desirable consequences. Thinking skills are easily taken for granted. “Surely I can think!” you may say to yourself. The question is, how well do you think?

Value objective reality. Our thinking can only be effective if it is based on reality. Reality is objective; it exists independently of your desires, wishes, whims, and objectives. Your thinking will be productive to the extent that you are able to accurately perceive and interpret this reality. This requires objectivity–the ability to separate “what is” from what you might want to believe or what might be more comforting to believe.

Keep an open mind. A closed mind is cut off from reality. The closed mind thinker can easily be recognized; he or she has a rigid set of opinions and attitudes that are not open to discussion. Such a thinker cannot be reasoned with, since this process involves processing new input. If you feel as if you are talking to a brick wall, you are probably dealing with a closed mind thinker. However, being open minded does not mean that you should not stand by the truth as you know it, or that you must accept every point of view. Truth will withstand questioning; only illusion is threatened by the exchange of thought.

Do not tolerate ongoing and unproductive ambiguity. Most decisions that you face involve a degree of ambiguity, a gray area between the obvious black-or-white alternatives. This is not an argument for the tolerance of uncertainty; it is a recommendation to exercise the power of thought to establish clarity. Ambiguity is often a symptom of sloppy, incomplete, or irrational thinking. When you experience such a state, it is time carefully to examine your premises, your principles, your knowledge, and the efficacy of your thinking process. Knowledge is the progressive retrieval of clarity from uncertainty and confusion.

Avoid the bandwagon. When a notion becomes popular, many people will jump on the bandwagon to embrace it. This is usually more a function of conformity than it is of critical thought. Look (and think) before you leap.

Distinguish between observation and inference, between established facts and conjectures that follow.

Withhold judgment until you are sure you have adequate information. It may be tempting to jump to conclusions, but you may end up in a hole you didn’t see. On the other hand, once you have adequate information, do not hesitate to make judgments based upon it. Judgment is part of the process of thinking, the application of your ability to come to conclusions about reality.

Maintain a sense of humor. You can’t think straight if everything seems like a matter of life and death to you. The ability to laugh at yourself and to see the humor in situations can often help you maintain clarity of thought and perspective. However, beware of laughter used as a weapon to denigrate what you value or as a psychological defense; such uses require a serious response.

Cultivate intellectual curiosity. The world is full of things you don’t yet know about. Curiosity is the sign of a mind that is free and open to the wonders of reality, unafraid to face the unknown in order to grasp new knowledge. A curious thinker will explore new manners of looking at things and doing things. Learning can be an adventure of constant and exciting discovery if you cultivate a curious mind.

Don’t take things at face value. At an early age, most of us learn not to believe everything we hear. Imagine how disappointed you would be if you believed all the claims you hear in television advertising! This same principle should be applied to the other information that comes through the media, even what is presented as “news.” It is meant to be chewed (and sometimes spit out), not swallowed whole! Beware of packaging that hides the truth. Sometimes a big box with a fancy picture on the front bears little relationship to what is hidden inside. Open it up and take a look for yourself!

Challenge conventional wisdom. Every culture is based upon certain assumptions that go largely unquestioned. Galileo Galilei, the Italian astronomer and mathematician, was brought before the Inquisition because he dared to question the “truth” that the Earth was the center of the universe. Even today, members of the Flat Earth Society are said to believe that the world is as flat as a pancake! You cannot assume what is commonly accepted as truth is indeed true. Truth is established by rational thought, not by a public opinion poll or past practice.

Resist appeals to emotion. Emotion can sometimes cloud your reason. If you are angry or ecstatic, your thought processes will not work in the same way as when you are in a more dispassionate mood. Beware of situations in which your emotions are being intentionally stimulated (by flattery, fear, or anticipations while you are being asked to make a decision. It may be a strategy to manipulate the outcome.

Do not automatically accept authority. The appeal to authority is a favorite advertising gimmick: Hollywood stars, sports figures, and popular culture heroes are used to promote everything from breakfast cereal to underwear and underarm deodorant. We are encouraged to think that if he (or she) says this is great stuff, it must be! The fact that such an authority is getting paid millions of dollars for his or her endorsement might be enough to make you question him as an objective authority.

Beware others’ ego pleasing behavior. Flattery is a time honored method of persuasion. If someone starts with flattery, they may intend to end with your thinking or your money in their pocket. It’s not always easy to tell the difference between a sincere compliment and a statement designed to manipulate you.

Be aware of your own ego enhancing behavior. Decisions can often be influenced by how you want to appear to yourself or to others. If you are overly concerned about maintaining a given image, you may be doing and saying things that are not really in your own best interest. As you achieve authentic self esteem, behavior based on appearances often loses its appeal.

Maintain a sense of perspective. When you are in the midst of an important matter, it is easy to lose a balanced view of the situation. It can often be a good practice to “zoom out” and view the matter in a larger context. One method to establish perspective: On a scale of one to ten, with one being the death of a blade of grass and ten being worldwide nuclear annihilation, what does your situation rate? Is it truly as critical as it seems at the moment?

Be aware of unspoken rules. Sometimes how we behave is dictated by hidden rules. If you are not aware of such unspoken rules, you won’t have the knowledge you need to make a wise decision. If you are in a familiar situation, chances are you know the rules (for example: don’t rock the boat, don’t question the boss, don’t challenge the professor). If you are in an unfamiliar situation (or a foreign culture), it may pay to be unusually observant and to question those more familiar with the situation. This is not to say that you should be limited by such rules, only that an awareness of them is advisable.

Be aware of nonverbal behavior clues. The impact of verbal communication is less than half of the message you receive from others. The rest of the message is communicated by nonverbal behavior. You will be influenced by both. If someone is acting friendly while painfully squeezing your hand in a handshake, you may have reason to question what he or she are saying! The same would apply if someone is stretched back in his chair and yawning while telling you how interested he is in your ideas. The clearer your perception of the facts of the situation, the clearer your thinking will be.

When under pressure, stop and think. Impulsive decision making often results in poor decisions. As the pressure for a decision increases, the temptation to make an impulsive decision also increases. You may rationalize this by thinking that any decision is better than indecision; this is rarely true. Indecision is often the result of poor decision making skills. Impulsiveness only assures that you’ll reap the consequences of poor decisions that much sooner!

See beyond labels and stereotypes. Labels and stereotypes are a type of mental shorthand that can facilitate thinking and communication. If you are in need of a four legged piece of furniture designed for sitting, it is easier to ask for a chair and to ignore the many possible variations of design and materials. However, if you are investigating a possible career choice, you should not be satisfied with a stereotypical description of the occupations involved you want to know exactly what it really means to be a police officer, brain surgeon, or financial analyst. Likewise, dealing with people from different backgrounds or cultures is seriously hampered by prejudicial stereotypes that obscure the truth.

Weed out negative self talk. Much of what passes for thinking is really self-talk–sub-vocal conversations you constantly hold with yourself. This self-talk often takes the form of critical judgments and attitudes about yourself. Your thinking skills may be undermined by self talk that conveys negative messages over and over again, reinforcing a negative self image (“I can’t do anything right,” “I’m just not as smart as everyone else”) or attitudes (“I better not trust anyone,” “School is a waste of time”). Unless this kind of negative thinking is challenged and replaced by more positive self talk, it will tend to influence your decisions in an undesirable manner. The fundamental element in such change is the cultivation of self esteem. Counseling is a good solution to this kind of problem.

Look for consistency. Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote: “foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.” A thoughtful consistency, however, is the hallmark of careful and thorough thinking. Consistency and logic are criteria that should be applied to whatever you consider. Inconsistency is often used to obscure the truth.

Practice empathy. There’s an Indian saying that you should walk a mile in another person’s moccasins before passing judgment. In other words, you should not judge others until you fully understand their situation. By practicing this type of empathy, you will decrease the likelihood of making snap judgments that you may later regret. You may also find that a little understanding facilitates a deeper insight into other people and their behavior. The deeper your insight into yourself and others, the wiser your decisions will be.

Take time to check the facts. If you don’t have the facts straight, your decisions are likely to be skewed. In important matters, you should try to obtain firsthand access to the relevant facts. If you are trying to make a career decision and want to know something about your occupational skills, it is better to take an aptitude test than to ask your buddies what they think “you’re good at.” Likewise, it is better to find out the nature of work for a given occupation, based on accepted references and worker interviews, than to rely on stereotypes that may be full of partial truths and significant omissions. Check the reliability of your information. Did it come from a reliable source? Can you find another source that confirms your information? If you can answer yes to these questions, you can be more confident about the facts you use as a basis for your decisions.

Check the validity of your information. Information may be reliable but not valid. Validity has to do with the relevance of the information to the context in which it is being applied. It may be a reliable fact that when you strike a match, fire will result–unless you are underwater or in the vacuum of outer space! Context is important!

Cultivate listening skills. When it comes to conversation, what you hear is what you get. Listening is another skill we tend to take for granted, but it is rarely utilized as effectively as we think. How many times have you been in the middle of a conversation and suddenly realized that the other person had asked you a question that you didn’t even hear? How often are you so preoccupied with your own thoughts in class that you tune out the instructor? It happens to us all, which illustrates the difficulty of practicing this seemingly simple skill. The better you listen, the more correct information you will obtain; the more correct information you have, the better decisions you will make.

Be aware of illogical thinking. There are entire philosophy books devoted to logic and the manner in which it can be distorted. Stereotypes are often based on illogical thinking, applying specific characteristics in a universal manner without verifiable basis in fact, or assuming a causal connection between two unrelated events. Advertising commonly encourages illogical associations: beef is touted as “food for real people” (what do “unreal” people eat?), and white teeth or the right deodorant seem to guarantee a bevy of babes (or hunks) at your feet (Where’s the Crest?). It may seem obvious that such claims are ridiculous, but someone is paying big bucks for these commercials for a reason!

Heed your intuition. All of us have hunches about things at one time or another. These hunches are often the result of information that registers at a level other than conscious awareness. It’s like when you sense someone staring at you, only to look up and find it is true. There was no logical reason to believe someone was looking it you, but it somehow registered nevertheless. Intuition cannot take the place of logical thought, but it can be developed as a valuable supplement. By trying to be more aware of your intuitions, you can increase your sensitivity to this kind of information. As you learn to test it and to trust it, it can enhance your decision making skills.