An Essay on Criticism解析

Alexander Pope的An Essay on Criticism (Excerpt: lines 215-232),这首诗是讲艺术的,一知半解是一件危险的事情,浅尝辄止使我们沾沾自喜,一开始的时候都是被艺术璀璨的光芒所吸引,年少无知的我们立志要攀上艺术的高峰,然而初涉此地后我们就迷失了方向,看不到前面的路,开始困惑起来,若是坚持住继续前行,你会发现意想不到的风景。再后来,当你小有成就时,你会感到无比愉悦,但回望走过的路会使我们颤抖,前面的路更不好走,需要付出更多的艰辛和努力,而且前面山外有山永无止境。世事莫不如此啊。

‘Tis hard to say, if greater Want of Skill
Appear in Writing or in Judging ill,
But, of the two, less dang’rous is th’ Offence,
To tire our Patience, than mis-lead our Sense:
Some few in that, but Numbers err in this,
Ten Censure wrong for one who Writes amiss;
A Fool might once himself alone expose,
Now One in Verse makes many more in Prose.

‘Tis with our Judgments as our Watches, none
Go just alike, yet each believes his own.
In Poets as true Genius is but rare,
True Taste as seldom is the Critick’s Share;
Both must alike from Heav’n derive their Light,
These born to Judge, as well as those to Write.
Let such teach others who themselves excell,
And censure freely who have written well.
Authors are partial to their Wit, ’tis true,
But are not Criticks to their Judgment too?

Yet if we look more closely, we shall find
Most have the Seeds of Judgment in their Mind;
Nature affords at least a glimm’ring Light;
The Lines, tho’ touch’d but faintly, are drawn right.
But as the slightest Sketch, if justly trac’d,
Is by ill Colouring but the more disgrac’d,
So by false Learning is good Sense defac’d.
Some are bewilder’d in the Maze of Schools,
And some made Coxcombs Nature meant but Fools.
In search of Wit these lose their common Sense,
And then turn Criticks in their own Defence.
Each burns alike, who can, or cannot write,
Or with a Rival’s or an Eunuch’s spite.
All Fools have still an Itching to deride,
And fain wou’d be upon the Laughing Side;
If Maevius Scribble in Apollo’s spight,
There are, who judge still worse than he can write

Some have at first for Wits, then Poets past,
Turn’d Criticks next, and prov’d plain Fools at last;
Some neither can for Wits nor Criticks pass,
As heavy Mules are neither Horse or Ass.
Those half-learn’d Witlings, num’rous in our Isle,
As half-form’d Insects on the Banks of Nile:
Unfinish’d Things, one knows now what to call,
Their Generation’s so equivocal:
To tell ’em, wou’d a hundred Tongues require,
Or one vain Wit’s, that might a hundred tire.

economics essay经济学论文代写-英国房地产繁荣的背后

英国的房地产繁荣了十多年。2008年经济危机时才开始时慢了下来。在经济繁荣时期英国房地产的价值飙升,以及在某些情况下的投资价值上涨了超过200%。这一繁荣现象的主要因素之一是经济长期持续增长,而且利率由政府和保持低。添加到这些因素导致本地和外国投资房地产投资的热情不减。这其中却隐藏了危机,最后政府严格控制的新的地产建在那段时期,以便有效需求超过供应。本文是一篇economics essay经济学论文代写案列,分析的是英国房产过热的背后。

The United Kingdom enjoyed serious property boom for over a decade. The property boom slowed down when the economic meltdown commenced in 2008. During the boom years the value of property in the United Kingdom soared, and in some cases the value of properties rose by over 200 percent
One of the main factors for the boom was that the economy had a long period of sustained growth, furthermore the interest rates were regulated by the government and kept low. Added to these factors was an upsurge in property investments fuelled by both local and foreign investors. Finally the government kept a tight control on the number of new houses built during that period, so that effectively demand outstripped supply (Cameron, 2005:5).
Currently, the bubble in the property market in the United Kingdom has burst and the market is currently undergoing some reforms. Prices are no longer rising as fast as they were some years ago and there is now an oversupply of houses in the property market as home owners are reluctant to sell in this current state. The effect of this is that supply of properties out stripes demand in residential property (Ruddick and Moore, 2010:1).
The economic slowdown affected all sectors of the property market, however the price of houses in London are slowly picking up and this is due to the weak pound that has made a lot of foreign investors to come in to the UK and invest in properties (Evening Standard, March 30, 2010).
Stake holders are arguing that the Carlsberg review of residential properties should be the bench mark for carrying out reforms in the residential sector as well as all the other sectors of the property market. Furthermore, the reforms currently going on is aimed at producing better and more information to customers, this lead to the introduction of the Home Owners Information Package (HIPs).
The government plans to regulate the property market, especially the estate agents so that it will no longer be an all comer’s affairs. Finally, there is now a standards board in the property industry, although they have limited powers.

On the other hand, the residential property market in Europe is different from the property market in the UK. The residential property market in the UK encourages people to buy their own homes, unlike in Europe, where the emphasis is more on long term renting (Oswald, 1999:10). Credit is readily available in the UK in order to assist home owners to buy properties, unlike in Europe where it was not easily available (Oswald, 1999:10). However all this has changed as the residential property market in Europe is undergoing some reforms that has had a great effect on the residential, commercial and industrial properties all over Europe. It appears that most European nations are copying the UK model and are now encouraging its citizens to be home owners instead of renting. Spain is a good example (Oswald, 1999:7).
Furthermore, with the opening up of the EU, Europeans can now move to any EU country and acquire property, this factor has greatly affected the property market in the EU, because capital can now be moved easily and investors in one part of the EU can take advantage of cheap properties in any other part of the EU.
Finally, it appears that for eight years starting from 1990, the reforms and gains of the real estate market in the United Kingdom were modelled on the system of the United States; however for six years starting from 1998, the property market in the United Kingdom appeared to be harmonized with that of its European neighbours (Lee, 2009:32).

Commercial Property and Industrial Property

Commercial properties are scarce in the UK and demand exceeds supply. This among other factors led to a boom in the commercial property sector. However there appears to be a slump at the moment as Commercial property in UK was also affected by the global economic down turn. However current reports indicate that the commercial property sector in the UK is picking up and investors are starting to snatch up prime commercial properties (Evening Standard, March 30, 2010).
The commercial property yield in the UK is quite impressive and high compared to its European neighbours.
On the other hand, commercial properties in Europe also appear to be booming. The European economy is recovering and a lot of foreign investors are investing in commercial properties in Europe (Oswald, 1999:7). The economic meltdown has also affected the growth of commercial property in Europe and the sector is also undergoing reforms just like the market is undergoing in the UK. Most EU countries have put legislation in place in order to allow real estate investment trusts (Oswald, 1999:27). This legislation will make it easier for foreign investors to invest in the commercial property sector and inject the much need funds in order to keep the commercial property sector booming.
Finally the demand for industrial property is low in the UK. This is due to the fact that a lot of industries are closing down due to high cost of labour and the strong Pound Sterling. Companies are moving their operations to Europe and other areas where it will be cheaper for them to operate. While in Europe the demand for industrial property is booming, due to the stability of the Euro as well as the economic prosperity in the Euro Zone. Furthermore due to some recent EU Directives, setting an industry in some EU countries is now a lot cheaper and easier than it used to be.

(B)

The five major skills that I acquired in the university are as follows: communication skills, multi-tasking, organizing skills and time management skills, IT skills and interpersonal abilities.

The main purpose of communication is to convey one’s message to recipients. Good communication takes many forms such as speaking, writing and listening (Heller, 1998:6). I gained my communication skills in the university through course work presentations, seminar discussions, formal training sessions and face to face meeting with my course leader. These range of activities helped me to acquire my verbal and communication skills in the university. I improved my verbal and communications skills in the university by devoting time to the three key elements of effective communication, which are, effective initial preparation, effective structuring of my material and effective delivery of my material (King, 1992: 14).
Finally, the art of getting one’s message across effectively is a vital part of being a good manager (Heller, 1998:1). Communication skill will help me in future because no matter my status within an organization I will be giving instructions to my colleagues, superiors or juniors and these instructions can range from simple instructions or requests to complex instructions.

I also gained IT skills and interpersonal abilities while studying in the university. We had a specialized IT unit in the university that offered training and support to students. I went for many lectures and training that the IT unit organized on campus.
We had a large IT laboratory on campus and each student had a password that allowed the student access to any of the personal computers in the IT laboratory and there was always an IT specialist to offer technical support to any student that was experiencing difficulties.
Inter personal abilities is basically about getting on well with your colleagues. I was in a university with people from different cultures and backgrounds. I also lived in the hostel and I had three flat mates all from different cultures and backgrounds and we to share the same living room and kitchen. These are the factors that helped me gain inter personal skills while studying in the university.
The explosive growth of information technology in recent years highlights the need and importance of IT skills (Pearlson & Saunders, 2006:7).
In future if I work in an organisation I could be asked to take on any tasks that require different skills at different times. Finally, most organisations are now a mix of people from different cultures and backgrounds, therefore my interpersonal skills as well as communications will benefit me, if I find myself working in such multinational organisations in the future.

One other skill that I gained while studying was multi-tasking and organizing skills. These two skills are essential skill (Crenshaw, 2007:15). I gained this skill by taking part in different activities in the university. As an undergraduate you are introduced to many different activities and some of them have no relationship with one another. I was introduced to so many different activities that involved different tasks to accomplish. I gained organising skills by been involved in many societies on campus. The effect of this was that I had to organise my time effectively and efficiently between my course work and my other activities on campus. This skill will help me in future due to the fact that I can cope in a busy working environment. Furthermore, I can be versatile and engage in different activities that are not related. Finally, I will be able to organize and balance my personal life and my working life.

The last key skill that I acquired while in the university was time management skills. Time management is all about determining one’s priorities. There is usually a lot to accomplish in the university. When you acquire this skill you can then be able to determine your priorities. I gained this skill my making a daily ‘to do’ list the day before and I usually organized my list in accordance with three criteria: the importance/urgency of the task, the amount of time available and the quality of time available (Morris, 1996:73). This skill enabled me to be in control of my personal life and academic life. This skill will help me function well under pressure and make me be in control of my work load in any organisation I find myself working for in future.

Bibliography

Cameron, G (2005) The UK Housing Market, Economic Review, University of Oxford Journal, Oxford
Crenshaw, D (2007) The Myth of Multi-tasking, Key Organisations System, London
Heller, R (1998) Communicate Clearly, Dorling Kindersley, London
King, A.G (1992) Effective Communication, Blackstone Press, London
Lee, S (2009) Is the UK real estate market converging with the rest of Europe? Journal of European Real Estate Research, Vol.2, Issue 1, 18-32
Morris, B (1996) First Steps in Management, Library Association Publishing, London
Oswald, A.J (1999) The Housing market and Europe’s Unemployment: A Non-Technical Paper, Economic Department, University of Warwick, Warwick
Ruddick, G and Moore, M (2010) UK Housing Market: Double Dip Fears, Telegraph on line can be assessed at < http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/houseprices/7539267/UK-housing-market-double-dip-fears-subside-slightly.html >
Scott, P (1996) The property Masters: a History of the British Commercial Property Sector, Spon E & FN, London

HRM-人力资源管理essay代写案例

企业人力资源管理是一项非常复杂得工程,它需要策划和实施如何管理企业的员工,使企业高效运行。本文作者将带领大家认识human resource management,旅游行业人力资源管理策略和实施,人力资源管理商业实践和策略。这篇essay是基于人力资源管理(HRM),并从这个我要发展我的研究,以制定具体的研究问题,我将能够写出一份完整的报告on.Â的初步审查着眼于人力资源管理作为一个整体并围绕这一理论,往往过度看,subject.Â具体来说,我想看看如何人力资源管理工作的结构在旅游行业内,特别关注英国假日公司和关注人力资源管理如何激励员工等各方面业务的客户服务部门。然而,要实现这一点,我必须将人力资源管理作为主题得到相关背景研究作为我的项目的开始。

Introduction

This literature review is based on Human Resource Management (HRM) and from this I want to develop my research to formulate a specific research question which I will then be able to write a full report on.  The initial review looks at HRM as a whole and the theories that surround this, often over-looked, subject.  Specifically, I want to look at how the HRM structure works within the tourism industry, especially looking at a major British holiday company and focussing on how HRM motivate their employees in various aspects of the business such as the customer service department.  However, to achieve this I must first look at HRM as a topic to get the background research for my project to begin.

Human Resource Management in the Tourism Industry

As a direct result of new and more sophisticated technology becoming available to us, businesses are increasingly growing to such an extent that they develop into a global concern. This means that the role of Human Resource Management has become very important within businesses, but it is still looked upon as a lower department.  However, the concept of Human Resource Management (HRM) has been heavily debated in literature and is used more increasingly within employment sector organisations. The history of HRM could be summarised as it being developed initially from work in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s and was created from several interrelated sources and since then the concept has been spread from the USA, into Europe and eventually Australasia.

There is no formal definition of HRM because different companies imply different definitions from various evidential sources. Basically, HRM can be defined as a range of circumstances that affect the employment and contribution of people, against the criteria of coherence and appropriateness (Brewster, 1994). However, Kirkbride (1994) suggested that the use of the term HRM gives the general sense of the policies, procedures and processes involved in the management of people in various work environments. Bratton and Gold (1999) also noted that a definition of the subject matter under which HRM covers would help to analyse and understand the HRM practices. They also defined HRM the subject as:

“…That part of the management process that specialises in the management of people in work organisations. Human ResourceManagement emphasises that employees are the primary resource for gaining a sustainable and competitive advantage, and that human resource activities need to be integrated within the corporate strategy, and that human resource specialists help organisations to meet both the efficiency and equity objectives…”

Mead (1998) states that the key terms in HRM literature are strategic focus. This meant that the need for human resource policies and practices had to be consistent with the overall business strategy, allowing the individual sections of a HRM package to reinforce each other. This should particularly emphasise teamwork, flexibility, employee involvement and organisational commitment. This, however, is a completely opposite message to the traditional demands on the human resource systems of countries like USA where there is a collective bargaining arrangement from both the employers and the policy-makers.

Therefore, the product market environment of the 1980s changed this situation so that the traditional demands would still be met, but at the same time the human resource management system would also meet their new demands at the level of the individual employee and throughout the entire organisation (Beaumont, 1993).  The Harvard Business School approach to strategic HRM suggests that the need for all the people involved with the business organisation, such as the employees, their union, the customers, etc., should be taken into account when considering any organisational arrangements, and making ’employee influence’ one of the leading policy areas in their attempt to develop a pro-active, strategic and broad-based HRM orientation in each individual organisation or department. The terms and content have changed considerably through the 1980s and 1990s, with a greater emphasis now being placed on the financial, communication and problem-solving activities. (Beaumont, 1993).

Again, Bratton and Gold (1999) also stated that HRM could be described as the organisation’s valued assets, emphasising the commitment of employees as a means of competitive advantage, and therefore creating calculative, quantitative and strategic managerial aspects of managing the workforce in a rational and humane way.

HRM Practices

As there is an increase in the greater quality of competition, the higher the emphasis on the market and the constantly changing attitudes towards work itself has made it necessary to identify and adopt different management approaches.  Even though the focus has moved from a structural and systematic way of thinking to the development of specific managerial practises that will stimulate a corporate culture and in return employee commitment is secured to the extensive use of employee resources by the HRM. Therefore, in order to understand why HRM is needed in the tourism industry, it is important to look at the role of HRM within an organisation, as this is the custodian of competitiveness.Â

A review of the literature based on international HRM by Harzing and Ruysseveldt (1995) revealed three main areas of discourse; staffing, training and development, assessment and compensation. These are also considered to be the main activities in both domestic and international HRM.  In general, staffing issues in an international organisation usually involve filling critical management positions. This means that almost all employees in the middle management and more operative levels are always selected and recruited on a local basis to the organisation. Sometimes, when certain candidates for upper management posts are being recruited, there are various options as to whether choose a candidate from the organisation’s parent-country nationals, their host-country nationals or even third-country nationals. The final choice, however, is definitely dependant on the attitude of the top level management at the parent organisation.

According to Perlmutter (1969), these attitudes can be divided into three central categories; Ethnocentricity, Polycentricity, and Geocentricity.  In respect to quality, top level management is continuously battling to weigh professional managerial skills and technical competence against environmental adaptiveness. Therefore, the ability to adapt to local cultures is a major factor, involving not only the candidate, but also their partner and their immediate family as well.

Training and development activities within international HRM systems, places such emphasis on shifting from the preparatory training needs of expatriates to a fully international training and development system which is available to all managers and will improve their performance in a global perspective, regardless of their country of origin. Today, these activities are crucial to international HRM. They can be wide-ranging which means the person who gets the job will need to know the specific organisational structure to which they will be assigned and the job and task skills required of them there.

They must also acquire an understanding of the local area including such things as the social, cultural, and legal aspects and develop the necessary interpersonal skills with which to perform well in various situations. The importance of the last two areas however was pointed out in a survey conducted by Harzing and Ruysseveldt (1995), where they identified cultural sensitivity and the ability to handle responsibility as well as the ability to develop employees, a manager’s three most important skills in their job role.

Finally, the last important task identified was that of assessment and compensation. This process of assessing and compensating international managers is complex in nature and can be reflected in the requirements used in such assessments. For example, Adler and Bartholomew (1992) suggested that these requirements are often a reflection of a more traditional approach to international managers, thus meaning their methods are based on the ethnocentric attitudes held by high management levels that are predominantly using parent-country nationals to staff their company’s foreign subsidiaries. However, such subsidiaries are subordinates to the main headquarters, both on an organisational and cultural level.

As a result, more open-minded, authors, such as Brewster (1994) and Stonehouse (2000) have taken part in the continuing debate on the concept of strategic HRM. They have argued that the underlying concept is the idea that human resources are not only a high operating cost for most organisations, but are also a major factor in the contribution of the effective utilisation of all the organisation’s resources as well.

The Importance of HRM and the Business Strategy

One of the main features that defines strategic HRM is its close relationship to the business’s main strategy and is creates the argument of is there a direct correlation between strategic HRM and economic success? HRM only becomes strategic when in private sector human resources are promoted to a position where the organisation looks and treats them as a competitive advantage (Kochan and Dyer, 1992).

This has raised a key debate in terms of how HRM can contribute to the overall success and competitiveness of the business. Until recently, however, most companies preferred a reactive management method within their human resources, leaving the personnel management to consist mainly of administrative activities.

The creation of multiple new macro economies have led to the concept and recognition of people as a valuable asset which if managed as a strategic resource can help an organisation to achieve superior performance levels and gain a greater competitive advantage. This awareness has led human resource management directly into the spotlight (Storehouse, 2000). Therefore, HRM has a definite strategic approach in arranging human resources and getting involved in a closer alignment of employment allocation systems along with business strategy.

The integration of HRM and business strategy means that the level at which the HRM issues are considered are now playing a larger role in the formulation of business strategies. Indeed, HRM intends to focus on the issue of strategy and the more organisations that become knowledgeable of this relationship, the more human behaviour becomes a competitive factor, which is closely linked to the strategic direction of the particular organisation.

According to Kirkbride (1994), an integration of business strategy and HRM as described earlier can have several advantages. Firstly, integration means that a broader range of solutions is available for solving complex organisational problems without the need for external help. Secondly, it ensures that the human, financial, and technological resources also are given equal consideration when setting targets and looking at the implementation capabilities.

Third, through this kind of integration, various organisations can explicitly concentrate on the individual employees, who the departments comprise of and their needs and only then can they implement their policies. Finally, the response to integrating human resources and strategic plans can limit the level of subordination of strategic planning in consideration of human resource preferences and, thus neglecting human resources as a crucial source of organisational operations and the creation of competitive advantage.

Whichever way you look at it, there is a growing body of evidence that supports the link of an association between high performing human resource management and organisational performance. It has been found that businesses whom linked HRM practices with their business strategy are constantly delivering higher financial performance outcomes. Beaumont (1993) argued that it is not just the relationship that is important but the quality of the HRM practices and a distinct approach is necessary in delivering high performance indicators. HRM strategies and practices must therefore be working well together within the individual business’s strategy planning.

Conclusion

All of the theories used in this review have been extensively researched to settle in their final point of view. This means that it should not be that difficult to find any related researches within the subject field or any other secondary data I come across to answer my research questions and meet the objectives of my research as a re-analysis of all the data that has been already collected could develop a new approach to the research.

Search of secondary-data will be aided by internet searches which should prove useful for survey results like organizational surveys, academic surveys organization’s employee attitudes, email questions etc.  Also, looking at and obtaining multiple-source data that has been published such as journals from tourism business magazines, books, government publications and organization reports.  On closure, an important note to remember is that the results from my research and survey, along with the results from other surveys found, including the relations with the literature review, should meet my research topic generally and settle in a clear and informative answer to my research question and its objectives.

Bibliography

Beaumont, P. (1993). Human Resource Management: Key Concepts and Skills.Â

Brewster, C. (2003). Line Management responsibility for HRM: What is happening in Europe?

Dessler, G. (2008).  Human Resource Management (11th Ed.).  Prentice-Hall Inc.

Harzing, A. & Ruysseveldt, J. (1995).  International Human Resource Management.

Kirkbride, P. (1992).  Human Resource Management in Europe.  Routledge, London

Maund, L. (2001).  An Introduction to Human Resource Management.  Palgrave – MacMillan

Mead, R. (1998).  International Management: Cross-Cultural Dimensions.

Stonehouse, G. (2000).  Business Strategy (2nd Ed).  Butterworth-Heinemann

Final word Count: 2047 (excluding references/bibliography)

 

History of Modern Computers essay-计算机发展史

计算机的发展历经了5个重要的时期。除了计算机硬件的升级,其系统内部和编程语言技术,算法等也稳步改进,在我们的生活中也被广泛应用。本文是一篇计算机发展史的论文,主要讲诉的是History of Modern Computers,

1945-Present

The evolution of modern computers is divided into a few “distinct” generations. Each generation is characterized by extreme improvements over the prior era in the technology used in the manufacturing process, the internal layout of computer systems, and programming languages. There has also been a steady improvement in algorithms, including algorithms used in computational science, though not usually associated with computer generations. The following timeline has been organized using a logical breakdown of events and discoveries.

First Generation of Modern Computers 1945-1956

With the beginning of the Second World War, governments sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic importance. This increased funding for computer development projects hastened technical progress. By 1941 German engineer Konrad Zuse had developed a computer, the Z3, to design airplanes and missiles. The Allied forces, however, made greater strides in developing powerful computers. In 1943, the British completed a secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode German messages. The Colossus’s impact on the development of the computer industry was rather limited for two important reasons. First, Colossus was not a general-purpose computer; it was only designed to decode secret messages. Second, the existence of the machine was kept secret until decades after the war (Goldstine 250).

American efforts produced a broader achievement. Howard H. Aiken, a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing an all-electronic calculator by 1944. The purpose of the computer was to create ballistic charts for the U.S. Navy. It was about half as long as a football field and contained about 500 miles of wiring. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I for short, was an electronic relay computer. It used electromagnetic signals to move mechanical parts. The machine was slow (taking 3-5 seconds per calculation) and inflexible (in that sequences of calculations could not change); but it could perform basic arithmetic as well as more complex equations (Stern 47).

Another computer development spurred by the war was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), produced by a partnership between the U.S. government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer was such a massive piece of machinery that it consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power, enough energy to dim the lights in an entire section of Philadelphia. Developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, ENIAC, unlike the Colossus and Mark I, was a general-purpose computer that computed at speeds 1,000 times faster than Mark I. After completion in 1945, the ENIAC was used extensively for calculations during the design of the hydrogen bomb. By the time it was decommissioned in 1955 it had been used for research on the design of wind tunnels, random number generators, and weather prediction (Stern 2).

In the mid-1940’s John von Neumann joined the University of Pennsylvania team, initiating concepts in computer design that remained central to computer engineering for the next 40 years. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to hold both a stored program as well as data. This stored memory technique as well as the conditional control transfer, that allowed the computer to be stopped at any point and then resumed, allowed for greater versatility in computer programming. Through the use of a memory that was large enough to hold both instructions and data, and using the program stored in memory to control the order of arithmetic operations, EDVAC was able to run orders of magnitude faster than ENIAC. By storing instructions in the same medium as data, designers could concentrate on improving the internal structure of the machine without worrying about matching it to the speed of an external control. The key element to the von Neumann architecture was the central processing unit, which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source (Goldstine 171, 181 -183).

Eckert and Mauchly later developed what was arguably the first commercially successful computer in the UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer). In 1951, the UNIVAC I became one of the first commercially available computers to take advantage of these advances. Both the U.S. Census Bureau and General Electric owned UNIVACs. One of UNIVAC’s impressive early achievements was predicting the winner of the 1952 presidential election, Dwight D. Eisenhower. The UNIVAC, 45 minutes after the polls closed and with 7% of the vote counted, predicted Eisenhower would defeat Stevenson with 438 electoral votes (Stern 149).

Second Generation Computers 1956-1963

By 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly changed the computer’s development. The transistor replaced the large, cumbersome vacuum tube in televisions, radios and computers. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been shrinking ever since. The transistor was at work in the computer by 1956. Coupled with early advances in magnetic-core memory, transistors led to second generation computers that were smaller, faster, more reliable and more energy-efficient than their predecessors. The first large-scale machines to take advantage of this transistor technology were early supercomputers, Stretch by IBM and LARC by Sperry-Rand. These computers, both developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle an enormous amount of data, a capability much in demand by atomic scientists. The machines were costly, however, and tended to be too powerful for the business sector’s computing needs, thereby limiting their attractiveness. Only two LARCs were ever installed: one in the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, for which the computer was named (Livermore Atomic Research Computer) and the other at the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington, D.C. Another addition in second generation computers was the introduction of assembly language. When assembly language replaced machine language, abbreviated programming codes to replaced long, difficult binary codes (Gersting 35).

Throughout the early 1960’s, there were a number of commercially successful second generation computers used in businesses, universities, and government from companies such as Burroughs, Control Data, Honeywell, IBM, Sperry-Rand, and others. These second generation computers were also of solid state design, and contained transistors in place of vacuum tubes. They also contained all the components we associate with the modern day computer: printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory, and stored programs. One important example was the IBM 1401, which was universally accepted throughout industry, and is considered by many to be the Model T of the computer industry. By 1965, most large business routinely processed financial information using second generation computers (Gersting 218).

It was the stored program and programming language that gave computers the flexibility to finally be cost effective and productive for business use. The stored program concept meant that instructions to run a computer for a specific function (known as a program) were held inside the computer’s memory, and could quickly be replaced by a different set of instructions for a different function. A computer could print customer invoices and minutes later design products or calculate paychecks. More sophisticated high-level languages such as COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use during this time, and have expanded to the current day. These languages replaced cryptic binary machine code with words, sentences, and mathematical formulas, making it much easier to program a computer. New types of careers (programmer, analyst, and computer systems expert) and the entire software industry began with second generation computers (Gersting 131).

Third Generation Computers 1964-1971

Despite the fact that transistors were clearly an improvement over the vacuum tube, they still generated a great deal of heat, which damaged the computer’s sensitive internal parts. The quartz rock eliminated this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer with Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. The IC combined three electronic components onto a small silicon disc, which was made from quartz. Scientists later managed to fit even more components on a single chip, called a semiconductor. As a result, computers became ever smaller as more components were squeezed onto the chip. Another third-generation development included the use of an operating system that allowed machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer’s memory (Gersting 35 – 39).

Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp. built the first standard metal oxide semiconductor product for data processing applications, an eight-bit arithmetic unit and accumulator. The fundamental components of this semiconductor laid the groundwork for the future discovery of the microprocessor in 1971. Another company that took advantage of the third generation advancements was IBM with the unveiling of the IBM System/360. The company was making a transition from discrete transistors to integrated circuits, and its major source of revenue moved from punched-card equipment to electronic computer systems.

In 1969 AT&T Bell Laboratories programmers Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie developed the UNIX operating system on a spare DEC minicomputer. UNIX was the first modern operating system that provided a sound intermediary between software and hardware. UNIX provided the user with the means to allocate resources on the fly, rather than requiring the resources be allocated in the design stages. The UNIX operating system quickly secured a wide following, particularly among engineers and scientists at universities and other computer science organizations.

Fourth Generation Computers 1971-Present

After the invention of the integrated circuit, the next step in the computer design process was to reduce the overall size. Large scale integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components onto one chip. By the 1980’s, very large scale integration (VLSI) squeezed hundreds of thousands of components onto a chip. Ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. The ability to fit so much onto an area about half the size of a U.S. dime helped diminish the size and price of computers. It also increased their power, efficiency and reliability. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, took the integrated circuit one step further by locating all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and input and output controls) on a minute chip. Whereas previously the integrated circuit had had to be manufactured to fit a special purpose, now one microprocessor could be manufactured and then programmed to meet any number of demands. Soon everyday household items such as microwave ovens, television sets, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection incorporated microprocessors (Gersting 35 – 39).

Such condensed power allowed everyday people to harness a computer’s power. They were no longer developed exclusively for large business or government contracts. By the mid-1970’s, computer manufacturers sought to bring computers to general consumers. These minicomputers came complete with user-friendly software packages that offered even non-technical users an array of applications, most popularly word processing and spreadsheet programs. Pioneers in this field were Commodore, Radio Shack and Apple Computers. In the early 1980’s, arcade video games such as Pac Man and home video game systems such as the Atari 2600 ignited consumer interest for more sophisticated, programmable home computers.

In 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer (PC) for use in the home, office and schools. The 1980’s saw an expansion in computer use in all three arenas as clones of the IBM PC made the personal computer even more affordable. The number of personal computers in use more than doubled from 2 million in 1981 to 5.5 million in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs were being used. Computers continued their trend toward a smaller size, working their way down from desktop to laptop computers to palmtop. In direct competition with IBM’s PC was Apple’s Macintosh line, introduced in 1984. Notable for its user-friendly design, the Macintosh offered an operating system that allowed users to move screen icons instead of typing instructions. Users controlled the screen cursor using a mouse, a device that mimicked the movement of one’s hand on the computer screen.

As computers became more widespread in the workplace, new ways to harness their potential developed. As smaller computers became more powerful, they could be linked together, or networked, to share memory space, software, information and communicate with each other. As opposed to a mainframe computer, which was one powerful computer that shared time with many terminals for many applications, networked computers allowed individual computers to form electronic gateways. Using either direct wiring, called a Local Area Network (LAN), or telephone lines, these networks could reach enormous proportions. A global web of computer circuitry, the Internet, for example, links computers worldwide into a single network of information. During the 1992 U.S. presidential election, vice-presidential candidate Al Gore promised to make the development of this so-called “information superhighway” an administrative priority. The ideals expressed by Gore and others are in usage everyday through email, web browsing, and e-commerce. A new generation of computers will emerge with the use wireless communications and wide area networking.

Bibliography

– Gersting, Judith L. The Computer: History, Workings,Uses & Limitations. New York : Ardsley House, c1988

– Goldstine, Herman Heine. The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1972.

– Stern, Nancy B. From ENIAC to UNIVAC : Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer. Bedford, MA: Digital Press, c1981.

– http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline.

– http://inventors.about.com/science/inventors/library/blcoindex.htm.

– http://www.dg.com/about/html/generations.html.

– http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/Thesis/Computer.html.

– http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/.

essay写作-APA格式写作方法

APA全称为American Psychological Association,APA格式主要用于心理学、教育学、社会科学领域的论文写作。其规范格式主要包括文内文献引用(Reference Citations in Text)和文后参考文献列举(Reference List)两大部分。APA格式强调出版物的年代(Time of the Publication Year)而不大注重原文作者的姓名。引文时常将出版年代置于作者缩写的名( the Initial of Author’s First Name)之前。中国的外语类期刊(语言学刊物为主)及自然科学类的学术刊物喜欢使用APA格式。

APA格式 APA格式是一个为广泛接受的研究论文撰写格式,特别针对社会科学领域的研究,规范学术文献的引用和参考文献的撰写方法,以及表格、图表、注脚和附录的编排方式。APA格式因采用哈佛大学文章引用的格式而广为人知,其“作者和日期”的引用方式和“括号内引用法”相当著名。

另一种相当有名的论文格式为MLA格式(The MLA Style Manual),主要被应用在人文学科,如文学、比较文学、文学批评和文化研究等。

编辑本段格式

虽然有些作者对于APA格式其中的一些规范感到不妥,但APA格式仍备受推崇。期刊采用同一种格式能够让读者有效率的浏览和搜集文献资料,写作时感到不确定的学者们发现这样的格式手册非常有帮助。譬如,手册中的“非歧视语言”章节明文禁止作者针对女性和弱势团体使用歧视的文字,不过使用APA格式的学术期刊有时也会为了让文章更有条理而允许作者忽略此规定。

编辑本段标题

根据APA格式,标题是用来组织文章,使得其有层次架构。APA格式规定了文章内“标题”的特定格式(1到5级),此详细内容可参阅《美国心理协会刊物手册》第五版的第113页,级数和格式如下:

第1级:置中大小写标题(Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading)

第2级:置中、斜体、大小写标题(Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading)

第3级:靠左对齐、斜体、大小写标题(Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading)

第4级:缩排、斜体、小写标题,最后加句号(Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period)

第5级:置中大写标题(CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING)

根据APA格式,若文章标题有:

1个级数:使用第1级标题

2个级数:使用第1和第3级标题

3个级数:使用第1、第3、和第4级标题

4个级数:使用第1、第2、第3、和第4级标题

5个级数:使用第5、第1、第2、第3、和第4级标题

(按:2个级数以上以大标题→小标题方式使用)

注意:目前并无六级以上的标题规定。 APA格式不允许“数字”和“单一字母”出现在标题之首。

编辑本段文献引用

文献引用是在一篇文章的段落或文字之中“参考来源”的标注。APA格式使用哈佛大学文章引用格式,通常来说,一个引用包含了作者名和发表日期,以括号夹注(有时会再加上页数),放在引用文字或句子之后。详细的引用或参考资料则放在位于文章最后的“参考文献”或“Works Cited”部分。APA格式明确的定义“参考文献”只放入文章内容引用的来源,所以有些文章才会有“参考文献(Reference)”和“Bibliography”的分别。(Bibliography另外包含了作者背景知识的来源,不一定是直接被引用的文献。)

单一作者

格式应为“(作者姓氏(非首字母),发表年份)”。若作者姓名在文章中已被提及,只需标出年份就好(若需要可加上页数),仍需使用括号。多位作者以上同理。

两位作者

作者姓氏必须以他们的名字在其发表文章内的顺序来排序。若两个作者都在括号内引用,名字中间需加上“&”符号;若不在括号内则使用“and”。

3至5位作者

第一次引用时需列举全部的作者,往后若引用相同的文献,只需举出最主要的作者,再加上“et al.”。但是,在参考文献部分,全部作者的姓名皆须列举出来

6位作者以上

举出第一位作者即可,格式应为“(作者 et al.,年份)”。在参考文献部分,全部作者的姓名皆须列举出来。

多篇文献,同一作者

若一作者有多篇你想引用的文献,只需用逗号来区隔作品的发表年份(最早到最晚依序排列)。若多篇文献在同一年内发表,请在年份后面加上a、b、c……等标注。(按:abc的使用需与参考文献部分有所对应,而这些文献的编排以标题名称的字母来决定。)

多篇文献,多位作者

根据上一个的规则,并且使用分号隔开。排序先依照作者姓氏的字母,接着是发表年份。

直接引述

格式与前述无不同,一样为“(作者,年份,页数)”。

编辑本段参考文献清单

APA格式规定“参考文献”部分的人名必须以姓氏的字母顺序来排列,包括姓氏的前缀。譬如,Martin de Rijke应被改成“De Rijke, M.”;Saif Al Falasi则改成“Al-Falasi, Saif.”。(阿拉伯文名字通常在姓氏和前缀之间加上连字号“−”,所以姓氏和前缀自成一体。)

纸本文献

单一作者著作的书籍:

Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.

两位作者以上合著的书籍:

Smith, J., & Peter, Q. (1992). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.

文集中的文章:

Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London: OtherWorld Books.

期刊中的文章(非连续页码):

Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God’s long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.

期刊中的文章(连续页码):

Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146.

月刊杂志中的文章:

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

报纸中的文章:

Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). Misquotes are “Problematastic” says Mayor. Toronto Sol. p. 4.

政府官方文献:
Revenue Canada. (2001). Advanced gouging: Manual for employees (MP 65–347/1124). Ottawa: Minister of Immigration and Revenue.

线上文献

针对电子文献、网站和线上文章,APA格式的网站上有订定一些基本的规则,第一就是提供读者详细的文献内容来源,第二为提供其有效的参考来源。

网络文章的打印版本

Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]。Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124.

电子期刊的文章(只有网络版的期刊)

Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from 网页地址

电子短信(newsletter)的文章

Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., et al. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the beaten path, 7(3). Retrieved October 3, 1999, from 网页地址

单篇线上文献(无作者及著作日期)

What I did today. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from 网页地址

从大学课程或系上网站取得的文献

Rogers, B. (2078). Faster-than-light travel: What we’ve learned in the first twenty years. Retrieved August 24, 2079, from Mars University, Institute for Martian Studies Web site: 网页地址

从数据库搜寻的期刊文章的电子复制版本(3至5位作者)

Costanza, G., Seinfeld, J., Benes, E., Kramer, C., & Peterman, J. (1993). Minutiæ and insignificant observations from the nineteen-nineties. Journal about Nothing, 52, 475–649. Retrieved October 31, 1999, from NoTHINGJournals database.

电子邮件或其他个人通讯(限定文字)

(A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001).

储存于光碟的书籍

Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]。New York: Random House/Listening Library.

储存于录音带的书籍

Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]。New York: Random House/Listening Library.

MBA Essay-Personal Background

Everyone was Korean in Seoul. No one was Korean in Prichard. Motorcycles and mopeds crammed Seoul’s roads. Trees and flowers lined Prichard’s streets. In cosmopolitan Seoul, I was a favorite son showered with attention from a large circle of extended family. In suburban Prichard, knowing no one but my parents, I was the only Asian child in the neighborhood. Indeed immigrating to the U.S. from Korea and settling down in a suburb of Mobile as a twelve-year old child dramatically changed my life. Uprooted from the people I knew and the things I was used to, I felt lonely, helpless, and uncomfortable in my new surroundings. However, I redirected the negative feelings into a force of strength that propelled me to excel in academics. Furthermore, the immigrant experience gave me adaptation skills that helped me as a foreign exchange student in Japan and as a businessman working with people of different cultures and backgrounds.

Pampered materially and nurtured emotionally in Seoul, I lived with relatives close by and a helping hand available whenever I needed it. My school, while stiflingly competitive and committed to regular doses of corporal punishment, presented a system which I understood and was familiar with. Although the neighborhood lacked open areas, it was a close-knit community where children addressed the lady next door as “aunt” and housewives frequently shared recipes. I was completely at home, ethnically, linguistically, and in every other respect.

My new life in Prichard contrasted sharply with my old one in Seoul. The neighborhood, while serene, lacked the extended support network of friends and family I had back home. School frustrated and demoralized me because I had learned only the first fourteen letters of the English alphabet and a few basic words before our arrival. After a fourteen-hour workday in the family restaurant, my exhausted parents were unable to help me. Further compounding my difficulties, I experienced racial bigotry for the first time in my life. Ethnic slurs and insults, which I managed to understand with rapidity, made me painfully aware I was different from others.

In the face of these obstacles, I started to question the purpose behind immigrating to the U.S. Seeing my parents’ exhausted silhouettes seven times a week, I began to understand the motivation behind the move that forever altered my life: a chance at a brighter future in the U.S. Because no one could help us, we had to help ourselves. Armed with this reinvigorating realization, I began to hoist myself out of loneliness, helplessness, and discomfort.

Since my school did not offer remedial English classes for immigrant students, I began studying with only the help of an English-Korean dictionary. Although I was focused and determined, streams of below average grades accompanied my first year in school. Nonetheless, by expending two to three times the effort of others, I started to notice signs of improvement. A well-timed vote of confidence came from my seventh-grade reading instructor, Mr. John Smith. In his class, the highest possible grade — a B — was given to only one student per school year. Aiming for that coveted prize, I managed to improve my grades from a D in the first semester to the B in the final semester. At the year-end award ceremony, Mr. Smith specifically commended my achievement in front of the student body. While I received many other academic accolades in later years, no one validated my efforts and boosted my self-confidence more than that short yet significant praise.

Although it has been fourteen years since I arrived in Prichard, the immigrant experience has strengthened my character in ways that will be professionally and socially beneficial for years to come. As an immigrant child, I learned how to transition from one culture to another. This skill helped me when I had to make that transition again as a foreign exchange student in Japan. Additionally, having experienced the degradation of ethnic bigotry, I have learned to be sensitive toward different people and cultures.