essays和reports必须遵守的11个原则

essays和reports11个必须遵守的原则

  • 报告/论文应该易于阅读,清晰和逻辑。
  • 使用短,简单的句子,理想情况下少于20个单词。
  • 首先概要:介绍,方法(一般不审查)、结果、讨论、结论(可选)。
  • 删除什么是没有必要的。良好的风格更重要(和得到更好的标志)字数。
  • 问问你自己:你想说什么?你想告诉读者什么?如果这样写,你会理解它3个月前吗?
  • 每个事实语句必须引用另一个源或您自己的数据。不剽窃。
  • 除非你是非常,非常有经验,避免亲密和个人评论,以及有趣的言论和笑话。
  • 使用法术chceker,卢克。
  • 不剽窃(见下文)! !
  • 阅读这些规则并不能代替阅读整个页面。
  • 100%不要抄袭! ! !*永远,在任何情况下* ! ! ! ! ! !
  1. The report/essay should be easy to read, clear and logical.
  2. Use short, simple sentences, ideally less than 20 words each.
  3. Start with a general outline: Introduction, Methods (normally not in a review), Results, Discussion, Conclusion (optional).
  4. Delete what is not necessary. Good style is more important (and gets a better mark) than the word count.
  5. Ask yourself: what do you want to say? What do you want to tell your reader? If written this way, would you have understood it 3 months ago?
  6. Each factual statement must either refer to another source or to your own data. Do not plagiarise.
  7. Unless you are very, very experienced, avoid intimate and personal comments, as well as funny remarks and jokes.
  8. Use a spell chceker, Luke.
  9. Do not plagiarise (see below)!!
  10. Reading these rules is not a substitute for reading this whole page.
  11. 100. DO NOT PLAGIARISE!!! *NEVER, UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES*!!!!!!

 

Analytical Essay sample 6个档次解析

The following Graduation Writing Proficiency Examination essays were written by HSU students during a regularly scheduled GWPE.  Except for the elimination of cross-outs, the essays are reproduced here exactly as written.  Insofar as possible, the essays were chosen to represent the entire range of possible scores.  The majors represented by the authors of these essays are, in alphabetical order, Art, Biology, Business Administration, Environmental Resources Engineering, Fisheries, Geography, Geology, Industrial Arts, and Resource Planning and Interpretation.

Analytical Essay Prompt

You have 45 minutes to write on the following topic.
Please read and think about the following two quotations:

  1. “Organized charity is doing good for good-for-nothing people.”
  2. “Charity is a helping hand stretched out to save some from the inferno of their present life.”

Write an essay on the above two statements in three parts as follows:

  1. Compare the statements. Explain what the two statements have in common and how they overlap.
  2. Contrast the statements. Explain how the two statements differ.
  3. Take a position with regard to the two statements by choosing one or mediating between them, and support your view with an example from your own observation or experience.

Sample Essay Score: Six

The two statements address an identical topic.  That is, they address charity, which might be defined as–the act of giving something of value, without the expectation of something in return.  Further, the two statements address the receiver, the person or persons to whom the charity is directed.

That the two statements both give equal weight to the meaning of charity is evidenced by the descriptions “doing good,” and “hand stretched out to save.”  These descriptions both illustrate the benificence of the act of charity, that it is in one act, both a recognition of need, and an attempt to fulfill that need.  They both paint a picture of goodness, honor and sharing on the part of the charity giver.

Contrary to these similarities, the two statements are in stark opposition to the beneficiary’s status in society.  The first, calling the receivers “good for nothing people,” depicts vagrants, bums, and worthless flies, fouling the smooth-flowing surface of society.  The second, seeing the receivers as involved in an “inferno,” brings to mind visions of lost souls, wandering homeless and possesionless in the Dante-esque hell of a society which measures a person’s worth by his wealth.

Another contrast between the two statements, more subtle yet intuitively strong, is that the benefactor, the charity-giver, attains an even higher degree of honor when he gives to one in true need, than when his sharing is enforced, by taxes, social pressure or inherited response.  The first statement speaks to the latter of these, the second to the former.  Thus, the second statement not only attributes a higher character to the beneficiary, but also to the benefactor whose actions are performed from the heart.

Although the truth, as always, lies in the middle ground, between these two extremes, I am more inclined to the second statement.  I have felt some degree of sympathy to almost every destitute, penniless or homeless person that I have met.  Hobos, bums on trains and the road, are there usually as a result of a fallen thread in the Fates’ tapestry or a falling out with society.  Some would not accept a handout if offered, demanding to perform work in exchange, while others are every way deserving of a handout, refusing formal governmental welfare.

The poor of the urban slums are, the vast majority of the time, victims of a society which has entrenched them in a lifestyle from which it is virtually to lift themselves out.  These are the ones which are most aptly described as falling to an “inferno” in their present life.  That society is obligated to providing charity to these victims of its own hand is just.

I have observed examples or persons receiving charity who simply in the act of accepting it, belie a certain “good-for- nothingness.”  These are usually persons who would be affluent other than for a desire to catch a free ride on societies’ back.  A part-time employed student, relaxing for the summer at the taxpayers’ expense is one example which stands out in my personal experience.

Still those in the category of good for nothing are a minute proportion of those receiving charity. With an optomistic view of the situation of mankind, one cannot deny the value of charity not only to those receiving it, but to the world in general.

Comment: Keeping in mind that this essay was written in 45 minutes, this is a superior response.  Although it has some flaws, it is well developed and organized.  There are indications (“the Dante-esqe hell of society”) of considerable sophistication in language and sentence structure.

 

Sample Essay Score: Five

Charity has been practiced for thousands of years by human beings.  The story of the good Samaritan, found in the bible, is an ancient example of charity that is familiar to many people.  The following two quotes are both written about charity: “Organized charity is doing good for good-for- nothing people,” and, “Charity is a helping hand stretching out to save some from the inferno of their present life.”  Both of these two quotes imply that charity involves helping, with acts of kindness, people who are in need or people who are destitute.

However, the two quotes express widely divergent views on the value of employing charity to help destitute people.  The first quote suggests that charity is useless.  It implies that the people that charity is directed toward are not worthy of such help and that charity does not help them improve their lives.  In contrast, the second quote suggests that the recipients of charity are worthy of the assistance afforded.  It implies that the lives of the people recieving the charity will be better because of it.

I agree with the latter quote.  The first quote shows a lack of belief in the good side of human nature and a disregard to trying to help other people.  The second quote supports a belief that all human beings deserve a decent lifestyle. I believe that charity is not a “cure-all”, a person must want to work toward helping himself or herself.  But sometimes people in need of charity don’t have the material means or positive attitudes necessary to help themselves better their lives.  Charity can provide both.

One summer my mother and three sisters, and I had to go on welfare.  We did not have enough money for the basic necessities of life despite the fact that my mother was working.  The food stamps and help from our church that we were awarded were greatly appreciated by us.  Unfortunately, there is an attitude held by many in our society that recieving charity is degrading and thus I didn’t tell many of my friends about our financial situation.  The charity given to us that summer enabled us to eat.  It provided us with the means to survive until the fall when my mother worked additional hours teaching.  I believe charity is helpful and a necessary act of concern for human beings in need.  There are some people who abuse the charity given by others but there are always abusers in society.  It is not justified to deny people in need because of the unethical actions of a few.

Comment: This paper handles the question quite well.  It is clearly organized and, although it does not explore all of the possibilities of the comparison/contrast, it is strong in its use of supporting example.  Its sentence structure, syntax and diction are generally free from major problems.

 

Sample Essay Score: Four

It is argued that “organized charity provides good for the good-for-nothing” and that charity is a true benefit to those in need.  These statements, although quite opposite also have some aspects in common.  The difference is largely in the perspective of the individual directly affected.

To say that charity is doing good for the good-for-nothing suggests that whose who accept charity are useless and unproductive.  In fact it is likely that the receivers of charity are in fact unproductive, ie out of work.  In that they represent a potential for production indicates they are not useless however.  By accepting charity one may however feel useless.  This is due to the pervasive attitude that people must be productive to be good- for-something.

Because people are often thrust out of the work force without any forewarning and because it is common that new work is difficult to find, the acceptance of charity doesn’t always cause distress.  Workers know that their aid is only temporary until they are matched with a new job.

In either case, when people are in the position where charity is being offered and is needed, it is likely that they will feel both unproductive and grateful.  Because they are in trouble economically their lives can indeed be an inferno.

The difference between the gratitude for needed charity and the feeling of “freeloading” is great when the feeling acts singularly.  Being grateful for help often induces people to organize and give more of themselves to others.  Those who have been helped often feel motivated to help others.

On the other hand, those who feel unproductive and useless are ashamed and bitter.  They are too ridden with guilt and self-consciousness to motivate and help others.  They are likely to feel anger toward the society that offers them charity rather than gratitude.

The feeling that is probably pervasive among the disfortunate lies somewhere in between guilt & gratitude.  The gratitude side of the scale is likely to be more productive in general and therefore is the prefered state.  By gratefully accepting aid, a lot of immediate problems are solved for the unfortunate and they can then attempt to reorganize their lives.

The little bit of guilt from the other side of the scale helps those with aid recognize the needs of disfortunate people.  Then, they can both work together to rebuild their lives and get back on their feet.  For example, a story found in the S. F. Chronicle recently described two people who were out of work who became friends and started a firewood business.  They were both previously on public assistance and now are off.  They both indicated that had the aid not been available they would not have made it.

Because of the motivation induced by the acceptance of aid the helping hand view is accepted.
Comment:Although competent, this paper is less successful than the previous two. The large number of short paragraphs indicates some difficulties with development of ideas. The overuse of the passive voice (“It is argued,” etc.), some diction problems (“the feeling acts singularly,” “disfortunate”), along with the sketchiness of the example, sometimes interfere with the writer’s meaning.

 

Sample Essay Score: Three
The two quotes state that charity does good for a part of society.  To some people both statements might indicate that “good-for-nothing people” and people in “the inferno of their present life” are one in the same.  To other people, the parts of the two quotes dealing with people who recive charity might mean that the type of people mentioned in quote “A” are not the same as those mentioned in quote “B.”

Comparison
For many people life is a living hell, and they are thus in need of charity.  There are people in society however, that believe that these people create their own hell.  While they might maintain that charity is good for these people, they still think of them as “good-for-nothing”.  They probably think that charity cases could climb out of their “inferno” if they tried, but they will not and are therefore a burdun on society.

Contrast
To many people in society there is a distinction between the “good for nothing people” reciving charity and those for whom life is hell also reciving charity.  Furthermore, they think that organized charity might tend to do good for those who do not really desrve it (the “good for nothing people”).  Whereas, charity in general tends to help out both the good for nothings and the people who really need it.

Pt.3
Statement “B,” is the best because takes a more positive view to people in need.  Statement “A” takes a less positive, less cynical view.

I know of a person who receives charity that someone who might make statement “A” would refuse to give charity to.  This person is to proud to tell anyone of his affliction.

 

Sample Essay Score: Two
These two statements contain very strong personal biases toward the economically disadvantaged, and the people involved in their welfare.  Both quotations seem to contain an element of sarcasm or negativity.  The inevitable plight of the financially unfortunate person appears to be the attitude represented in these quotations.  Charity is thought to be an ineffective means to this problem.

Quotation A is making a judgment about the people that charity effects.  The “…good-for- nothing people, implies that these people don’t deserve the aid of the organization.  In contrast quotation “B” is speaking more of the hopelessness of charity, and its minute effect on the masses of disadvantaged.

I feel that even tho organizations concerned in charitable contributions have only a very small impact on the world at large, it is a beginning in raising the concerns of others.

Comment: This paper is very thin in content and inadequate in interpreting the quotations. Part 3 is completely unsupported and there are some serious problems with sentence structure and diction (“Charity is thought to be an ineffective means to this problem”).

 

Sample Essay Score: One
The only thing statements A and B have in common is charity being supportive.

Statement A uses “organized” where statement B uses charity in general.  This means statement B can include all of statement A but A can only be a part of statement B.

Charity is supportive to a lot of people. It is helpful but charity can also be abused.  People living for what other people will hand out to them won’t be living their own life.

Comment: This paper is far too undeveloped for even a minimal answer.

Definition Essay写作:4项基本原则七大步骤

在国外留学,Definition Essay也是常见的作业形式。鉴于有的小伙伴们还不知道怎么写Definition Essay,美伦教育老师就如何写好一篇Definition Essay为大家总结了四个基本写作原则和七个详细步骤。从限定文的摘要开始到论文的结论,文章都一一列出所需要注意的事项,并提供相对较好的句子以供参考。希望可以帮助大家完成高质量的Definition Essay。

Definition Essay写作原则

1. 限定文中切勿运用“when” “where” 等词。常用方法便是用名词限定名词,形容词限定形容词等等

2. 谨记,限定文绝非反复性体裁。

3. 在举例解释过程中,尽量用简洁且众人知晓的限定对象。

4. 阐明论文中限定对象最为突出的特征。

Definition Essay写作步骤

步骤一:将所选对象限定一个标准或表述范围

在选择限定对象方面,本文给出多个层面的限定对象供大家参考。其中便包括:历史限定文,消极限定文,特定限定文,客观限定文,以及主观限定文。历史限定文旨在探索一个词语在一段时期内各种不同的意思;消极限定文主要向大家展示其限定对象的含义以及限定对象未包含的意思;特定限定文主要表现在限定作者的论述过程,需详尽告知读者本文从哪个角度进行探讨或本文将如何运用限定对象;客观限定文旨在强调限定对象本身;主观限定文则通过强调本文限定对象(自己选择的限定对象)的观点和视角,从而使读者信服。想一想,哪种限定文的风格最吸引读者。

步骤二:举例,类比,突出限定对象

收集已确定的限定对象的相关资料,选择相关细节内容和论据的风格。

步骤三:突出主题

确定论点,清楚的阐明已限定对象及限定理论。谨记,论文论点必须简洁明了,一句话以概之,让读者一目了然。

步骤四:围绕主题方向展开介绍

论文摘要必须有引导作用,令读者明了论文的主题方向。另外,论文的论点也应包含在内。

步骤五:围绕主题拓展

编写有条理的论文中心段落,为论点提供有力论据。确保要完整的用到论点中所例举出的限定理论来限定对象。

步骤六:从各个方面分析主题

按限定理论合理的发展方式排列全文,可根据时间、重点、直观感觉以及其他方法进行排列。

步骤七:围绕主题综合,提出结论,总结全文

最后编写结论,总结全文主要要点,重申论点。结论必须清楚具体,让读者明白这篇论文主要传达的信息,并知道关注本论文中限定对象及限定理论的缘由。