美国经济学代写-欧洲经济衰退原因 - 留学生essay代写网

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美国经济学代写-欧洲经济衰退原因

美国经济学代写案例

美国经济学代写案例-本文主要分析欧洲经济衰退原因以及政府采取什么措施降低失业率。目前欧洲开始同伙紧缩,物价和工资水平都整体下降。高失业率的最终结果是什么?在本文中,作者采用Phillips Curve研究方法表明了政府和银行方面针对目前现状应该采取的一些措施,比如税率调整、增发货币等等。美国经济学作业一般要求有系统的理论知识体系,以及研究方法。针对某个问题能通过研究方案给出科学的答案。Meeloun在美国经济学代写拥有大量的写作经验和写手团队,无论是质量和价格都具备优势,如有需求欢迎咨询在线客服。

Part 1: Unemployment

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Justifiction………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
Analyse……………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
Type on unemployment…………………………………………………………………….4
Aggregate expenditure……………………………………………………………………..5
The Phillips curve……………………………………………………………………………….5
Expansionary policy……………………………………………………………………………7
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
Part 2: Inflation

News Summary………………………………………………………………………………………….9
Analyse……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Type of unemployment……………………………………………………………………10
The Phillips Curve…………………………………………………………………………….11
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Part 3: Appendix

References……………………………………………………………………………………………….14
Original Articles

Article 1

1.0 Abstract

The following report combines researched information from various sources to consider what is happening when Europe suffering recession and what can the government do to lower unemployment rate. According to the article, Europe is experiencing recession. Recession will result in cyclical unemployment, which is unavoidable. Besides that, Economists in Europe fear that falling prices will make shoppers to reduce purchases, forcing employers to lower production and cannel planned salaries rises. There is little motivation for consumers to increase purchases and speed up economic growth without a steady, controlled rise in prices. This report discusses about what is the result of high unemployment rate. Moreover, the research points out some methods to solve this problem.
2.0 Justification

The above questions are the basic fundamental principles in the study of economics. We hope to be studying economics at the University of Wollongong in the future and for this reason I chose the topic in question.

3.0 Analyze

3.1 Type of unemployment

Cyclical unemployment as the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor to employ all those who are looking for work. The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of spending and consumption in the overall economy. (Investopedia, 2014)

Europe are suffering a economy recession. A recession will bring thecyclical unemployment.

3.2 Aggregate expenditure

“”A high unemployment rate will decrease the production, then the national income will decrease. That means government will collect less tax revenue. Government should keep the inflation rate low so that consumer’s purchasing power will not fall.

The high unemployment rate will bring a decrease in consumption. Then the aggregate expenditure will decrease, the aggregate expenditure curve will shifts downwards. (vide diagram 1)

3.3 The Phillips Curve

In economics, the Phillips curve is a historical inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of inflation that result in an economy. Stated simply, decreased unemployment, (i.e., increased levels of employment) in an economy will correlate with higher rates of inflation. (Blanchard, 2000)

“”Europe are suffered a recession in economy, high unemployment rate and low inflation. To reduce the unemployment rate, Europe countries should try to increase the inflation rate.

“”The diagram 1 shows the short-run Phillips curve.

Europe countries financial apartment should aim the government expenditure and tax (include business tax and income tax) to reduce unemployment. These apartments should increase the government expenditure and tax revenue. A decrease in business tax can promote the investing behaviour, while a decrease in income tax can lift the disposable income so that to increase the consumption. The aggregate demand curve will shifts to the right. (vide diagram 3) Then the aggregate demand will increase. Finally, the inflation rate will increase, while the unemployment rate will decrease.

3.4 Expansionary policy

“”A macroeconomic policy that seeks to expand the money supply to encourage economic growth or combat inflation (price increases). One form of expansionary policy is fiscal policy, which comes in the form of tax cuts, rebates and increased government spending. Expansionary policies can also come from central banks, which focus on increasing the money supply in the economy. (Investopedia, 2014)
However, it is necessary for a country’s central bank to use expansionary policy when a country suffered a economic recession. In economic recession, Europe are suffered high unemployment rate. So central bank should use expansionary policy to reduce the unemployment rate.

First, central bank should use some method to increase the money supply, such as buy more bonds, decrease the reserve rate and increase the discount rate. Then, the interest rate will decrease. Next, the consumption and investment will increase. After that, the aggregate expenditure will increase. Finally, the price level and real GDP will increase, while the unemployment rate will decrease.

4.0 Conclusion

This research has taken information from various sources to answer the two questions,what will happen when a country suffering high unemployment rate and what can government do to lower unemployment rate. Europe are suffering a economy recession which will bring the cyclical unemployment. As a result of high unemployment, there will be a decrease in consumption and national income. If Europe countries want to lower their unemployment rate , they should decrease the tax rate. Therefore, there will be more investing behaviour and the consumption will increase. Besides that, the cental bank can also apply expansionary policy to lower unemployment rate.They can use some method to increase the money supply, such as buy more bonds, decrease the reserve rate and increase the discount rate. As a result, interest rate will go down, which will cause the consumption and investment increase. Therefor, the price level and real GDP will increase, while the unemployment rate will decrease. However, both actions will cause inflation rate go up. Because of this reason, Europe should study and weight their situation right and welly.

Article 2

News Summary
According to the Office for National Statistics, The Consumer Prices Index, rose to 1.8% in April from 1.6% in march.

The office for National Statistics said when Easter, which decreased in April this years, maybe it affect an impact on travel costs. The petrol price was also higher than a year which April in last year. (Angela, 2014)

The increase of CPI rate in April suggests that the cost of living is rising faster than the wage rises. The latest figures on profit demonstrated that they climbed at a yearly rate of 1.7% in the three months to March.

The rate of expansion as measured by the Retail Prices Index (RPI) was unaltered at 2.5%. Regardless of the expand in the CPI swelling measure, the rate is still underneath the Bank of England’s 2% focus for expansion.

A week ago, Bank of England representative Mark Carney said he expected the rate of swelling to stay beneath its focus for the following two years. (Angela, 2014)

Consumer Price inflation should ease to as low as 1% by the end of this year and remain comfortably below the 2% target in 2015.

2.0 Analyse

2.1 Type of inflation

Cause of the increase in goods production expenses, the inflation rate increase to 1.8%. Thus, this is cost-push inflation.

The cost-push inflation is a phenomenon in which the general price levels rise (inflation) due to increases in the cost of wages and raw materials. (Investopedia, 2014)

“”Cost-push inflation caused by increase in cost of production, such as wages, rent and price of materials. An increase in cost of production will bring a decrease in short-run aggregate supply. The Short-run aggregate supply curve will shifts to the left (vide diagram 5). Then, the price level will go up, while the real GDP will drop.

These phenomenon will lead a recessionary gap. Government should try to reduce the unemployment rate. The best way for government to solve this issue is implements expansionary fiscal policy. Based on this policy, government should increase the government expenditure and decrease the tax revenue (include the business tax and income tax). A decrease in business tax can promote the investing behaviour, while a decrease in income tax can lift the disposable income so that to increase the consumption. Then the aggregate demand will increase. After that, the real GDP and price level will increase.
2.2 The Phillips Curve

In 1958 AW Phillips plotted 95 years of information of UK compensation swelling against unemployment. It appeared to recommend a short-run exchange off between unemployment and expansion

The hypothesis behind this was reasonably clear. Falling unemployment may cause climbing expansion and a fall in swelling may just be conceivable by permitting unemployment to climb

In the event that a Government needed to decrease the unemployment rate, it could expand total request yet, in spite of the fact that this may briefly build work, it could additionally have inflationary ramifications in the process of childbirth and the item showcases.

Key to comprehension this exchange off is to consider the conceivable inflationary impacts in the process of childbirth and item showcases from an expand in national wage, yield and livelihood.

The work market: As unemployment falls, work deficiencies may happen where talented work is in short supply. This puts weight on wages and costs to climb

Other element markets: Cost-push swelling can likewise originate from climbing interest for wares, for example, oil, copper and handled made merchandise, for example, steel, solid and glass

“”Item markets: Rising interest permits suppliers to lift costs to build their overall revenues. The danger of climbing costs is most excellent when interest is out-stripping supply-limit. (Craig,2012)

Depending on Short-Run Philips Curve, as the unemployment rate decreasing, it can increase in inflation rate and there is inverse relationship between unemployment rate and inflation rate.

The SRPC shows the inverse relationship between unemployment rate and inflation rate. (Vide diagram 6)

Because inflation and unemployment are inversely related, government cannot solve both economic problems(unemployment and inflation)at the same time.

The rate of CPI increase then the inflation increase.

As the average wages were increased, the cost of production will increase and it also affect the short-run aggregate supply(SAS) to fall. As the SAS decreased ,SAS curve will be shifts to the left that the price will increase and real GDP will decrease. The result of the SAS shifting, it can be affected inflation rise and the real GDP fall with affect production rise and at the end the number of unemployment will fall.

3.0 Conclusion

In a conclusion, the unusual rise of UK inflation rate in April is the first increase in last 10 months with the increase of CPI (Consumer Prices Index).This rise shows that the cost of living will even increase faster than wage growth. It is actually unusual to UK as a developed country, people might suffer by the prices of food or other living conditions if the inflation rate keep increasing in this speed. However, this significant rise could be just ‘a blip’ due to the timing of Easter and the cost of travel increased .The increase of fares for flights and ferries contribute a lot in pushing up the inflation rate. The increases in travel and fuel costs were offset to some extent by a fall in the cost of food. Though the inflation rate is higher wage growth, Ben Brettell, economics editor at stockbrokers Hargreaves Lansdown said in long term, the wage growth must still be higher than inflation rate. It means that the real wage growth will increase faster than the prices over next few years. The Capital Economics economist Samuel Tombs consider the inflation rate will remain comfortably below the target of 2015 which is good for people.

Appendix

References
Blanchard. (2000).Macroeconomics(Second ed.). Prentice Hall
Investopedia. (2014).Cyclical Unemployment Definition. RetrievedJune7, 2014, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cyclicalunemployment.asp
Investopedia. (2014).Expansionapy policy Definition. RetrievedJune7, 2014, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/expansionarypolicy.asp
Angela. (2014). UK inflation rate increase to 1.8%. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-27483957
Investopedia. (2014).Cost-push inflation. RetrievedJune7, 2014, from http:// www .investopedia.com/terms/c/costpushinflation.asp
Craig. (2012). 8 tricks up your auto dealer’s sleeve. Retried June 8, 2014, from http://www.interest.com/auto/news/8-tricks-up-your-auto-dealers-sleeve/
Phippip. (2014). OECD urges European Central Bank to act over low inflation. Retrieved June 1, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/may /06/oecd-european-central-bank-low-inflation-eurozone

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