批判性写作|怎么养成批判性写作 - 留学生essay代写网

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批判性写作|怎么养成批判性写作

什么是关键的写作

批评写作的最具特色的特点是:

一个清晰而自信拒绝接受其他作家的结论没有评估的论点和证据,他们提供;

为什么其他作家的结论可以接受或可能需要谨慎对待的原因一个平衡的演讲;

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您自己的证据和论点清晰呈现,从而导致你的结论;和

在自己的证据,论点,和结论承认的限制。

什么是描述性的文字?

描述性写作的最典型特征是,它会描述的东西,但不会超出一个帐户似乎是在那里。需要描述的写作一定量的建立,例如:

研究的设置;

文学作品,或艺术的一般说明;

测量列表中获取的;

研究的时间;

一个帐户的学科的关键人物的详细履历;要么

历史上导致到一个事件或决定的简要概括。

描述性文字和关键写作有了你不开发的说法描述性文字之间的差异;你只是设置在其中可以开发一个参数的背景。您所代表的情况,因为它主张,没有出示任何分析或讨论。

描述写的是比较简单的。还有,它可以很容易使用您的字数限制很多很多的话,简单地提供描述的陷阱。在提供,你提出但不是将信息只说明;您报告的想法,但

不以任何方式把他们前进。因此,只用描述性的书面转让将获得一些痕迹。

随着关键的写作,你参加了学术争论。这是更具挑战性和风险性。你需要

权衡证据和其他的参数,和你自己的贡献。您需要:

考虑证据和论据您已经阅读的质量;

识别您可以根据意见的关键积极和消极的方面;

评估其针对性和实用性,以您从事为您分配的辩论;和

确定如何最好可以织成,你正在开发的论证。

显然需要比描述写作关键写作技巧高得多的水平,这反映在它被赋予更高的痕迹。

寻找你的学术声音

当您在关键写作搞你你的主题范围内开发自己的学术声音。

惠灵顿等。 (2005年第84页)提供学术和非区分一些建议

 

学术声音。他们认为,学术界的声音将涉及:

“健康的怀疑……但不是冷嘲热讽;

信心……但不是’自大’或傲慢;

判断这是至关重要的……但不是不屑一顾;

意见……而不固执己见;

发表的作品……不是连环拍摄时随机指标的仔细评估;

是“公平”:公平评估的长处和别人的思想和写作的弱点……不损害;和

作出重大思想的基础上,判断和现有的所有证据……而不是没有原因的说法。“

惠灵顿J.,Bathmaker A.,亨特C.,麦卡洛克G.赛克斯P.(2005)。与你的博士学位成功。伦敦:贤者。

尝试进入批判写作的习惯,以确保你批判阅读,您包括在你的写作批判。

穿线报价在一起

它可以是很有诱惑力的串起来引用来支持论点,感觉越引号包含你越强你的论点。这是很重要的,但是,要记住,你还需要引号解释给读者,并解释其相关性,讨论他们的有效性,并展示它们如何与其他证据。

战略性利用段落

有几种方法,使您可以使用段落,以提高您的评论文章。您可以使用段落进行描述性的写作和批判性分析之间的明确和visualseparation,

由当你从描述移动到关键写作,反之则切换到一个新的段落。这可以帮助:

强调对正在包括描述和批判性的分析,通过提供他们分离的可视化表示读卡器;和

推你产生必要的批评文章,特别是如果你发现你的描述段落总是更长,或更频繁,比你的批判性分析段落。

分段符可以提供更长的参数中你的读者一个短暂的停顿;给他们机会,以确保他们跟上你的理由。段落过于长的可能需要读者抱太大的在他们的脑海中一次,从而不必重新阅读材料,直到他们

他们能识别你正在点。

您还可以使用段落推自己并肩包括文字描述或引用的评论文章,通过考虑每个段落几乎是微型的文章。在每个段落你会:

介绍你想点;

说明一点,与之配套的证据;

批判性反思的点。

如果它的价值,包括它的价值告诉我们为什么

 

描述性文字一定量是必不可少的,特别是在论文或作业或论文的早期部分。除此之外,然而,有一种危险,即过多描述性的写作会占用宝贵的话,从你的字数限制,并降低你的批评文章,将让你分数高的空间。

一个有用的习惯进入是要确保,如果你介绍一些有关你的说法的证据,你需要那么为什么它是相关解释给读者。你解释的逻辑有助于你的写作的重要组成部分。

所以,一个句子或两个可能描述并引用的证据,但是这是不够的本身。接下来的几个句子需要解释一下这方面的证据有利于你正在论证。这可能会感觉像复制在第一,或者说你解释的东西是显而易见的,但它是你的责任,以确保证据的相关解释给读者;你不应该简单地假设读者

将遵循同样的逻辑,你,或者只是工作,你所描述的报价或数据的相关性。

 

What is critical writing?

The most characteristic features of critical writing are:

a clear and confident refusal to accept the conclusions of other writers without evaluating the arguments and evidence that they provide;

a balanced presentation of reasons why the conclusions of other writers may be accepted or may need to be treated with caution;

a clear presentation of your own evidence and argument, leading to your conclusion; and

a recognition of the limitations in your own evidence, argument, and conclusion.

What is descriptive writing?

The most characteristic features of descriptive writing are that it will describe something, but will not go beyond an account of what appears to be there. A certain amount of descriptive writing is needed to establish for example:

the setting of the research;

a general description of a piece of literature, or art;

the list of measurements taken;

the timing of the research;

an account of the biographical details of a key figure in the discipline; or

a brief summary of the history leading up to an event or decision.

The difference between descriptive writing and critical writing With descriptive writing you are not developing argument; you are merely setting the background within which an argument can be developed. You are representing the situation as it stands, without presenting any analysis or discussion.

Descriptive writing is relatively simple. There is also the trap that it can be easy to use many, many words from your word limit, simply providing description. In providing only description, you are presenting but not transforming information; you are reporting ideas but

not taking them forward in any way. An assignment using only descriptive writing would therefore gain few marks.

With critical writing you are participating in the academic debate. This is more challenging and risky. You need

to weigh up the evidence and arguments of others, and to contribute your own. You will need to:

consider the quality of the evidence and argument you have read;

identify key positive and negative aspects you can comment upon;

assess their relevance and usefulness to the debate that you are engaging in for your assignment; and

identify how best they can be woven into the argument that you are developing.

A much higher level of skill is clearly needed for critical writing than for descriptive writing, and this is reflected in the higher marks it is given.

Finding your academic voice

When you engage in critical writing you are developing your own academic voice within your subject.

Wellington et al. (2005 p.84) offer some suggestions for distinguishing between the academic and the non-

 

academic voice. They suggest that the academic voice will involve:

“healthy scepticism … but not cynicism;

confidence … but not ‘cockiness’ or arrogance;

judgement which is critical … but not dismissive;

opinions … without being opinionated;

careful evaluation of published work … not serial shooting at random targets;

being ‘fair’: assessing fairly the strengths and weaknesses of other people’s ideas and writing … without prejudice; and

making judgements on the basis of considerable thought and all the available evidence … as opposed to assertions without reason.”

Wellington J., Bathmaker A., Hunt C., McCulloch G. and Sikes P. (2005). Succeeding with your doctorate. London: Sage.

Try to get into the habit of writing critically, by making sure that you read critically, and that you include critique in your writing.

Stringing together of quotes

It can be tempting to string together quotes to support an argument, feeling that the more quotes you include, the stronger your argument. It is important, however, to remember that you also need to interpret the quotes to the reader, and to explain their relevance, discuss their validity, and show how they relate to other evidence.

Strategic use of paragraphs

There are several ways in which you can use the paragraph to enhance your critical writing. You can use paragraphs to make a clear and visualseparation between descriptive writing and critical analysis,

by switching to a new paragraph when you move from description to critical writing, and vice versa. This can help in:

emphasising to the reader that you are including both description and critical analysis, by providing a visual representation of their separation; and

pushing you to produce the necessary critical writing, especially if you find that your description paragraphs are always longer, or more frequent, than your critical analysis paragraphs.

A paragraph break can provide a brief pause for your readers within a longer argument; giving them the opportunity to make sure they are keeping up with your reasoning.  Paragraphs that are overly long can require readers to hold too much in their mind at once, resulting in their having to re-read the material until

they can identify the point you are making.

You can also use paragraphs to push yourself to include critical writing alongside descriptive writing or referencing, by considering each paragraph almost as an essay in miniature. Within each paragraph you would:

introduce the point you want to make;

make the point, with supporting evidence;

reflect critically on the point.

If it’s worth including, it’s worth telling us why

 

A certain amount of descriptive writing is essential, particularly in the earlier parts of the essay or assignment or dissertation. Beyond that, however, there is a danger that too much descriptive writing will use up valuable words from your word limit, and reduce the space you have for the critical writing that will get you higher marks.

A useful habit to get into is to make sure that, if you describe some evidence relevant to your argument, you need then to explain to the reader why it is relevant. The logic of your explanation contributes to the critical component of your writing.

So, a sentence or two might describe and reference the evidence, but thi

批判性写作

批判性写作

s is not enough in itself. The next few sentences need to explain what this evidence contributes to the argument you are making. This may feel like  duplication at first, or that you are explaining something that is obvious, but it is your responsibility to ensure that the relevance of the evidence is explained to the reader; you should not simply assume that the reader

will be following the same logic as you, or will just work out the relevance of the quote or data you have described.

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