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Essay写作中的图表引用

如何在一篇论文中引用图表?在很多论文Essay当中都会需要引用一些表格。那么引用表格格式是怎么样的呢?本文为大家详细介绍。
有时你可能会发现在写一个研究论文时需要从另外的地方引用一些图表。这些都是常见的,但是要注明来源。要这样做,您通常在图表下提供一个引用。这个被引用的形式取决于你的学科中使用的引用风格。现代语言协会(MLA)的风格是由英国学者和许多人文学科,而作者在心理学、社会科学和自然科学中经常使用的美国心理学协会(APA)标准。其他人文学科的专家和社会科学家,包括历史学家、使用芝加哥/ turabian风格,与工程相关领域利用电气和电子工程师协会(IEEE)标准。在写论文前咨询你的导师,以确定哪些引用风格是必需的。

Essay写作中的图表引用
请参考您的文本图形。当在书面指的曲线图,使用“数字X”或“fig.X”在括号中。使用阿拉伯数字,并没有利用任何“数字”或简称“无花果”。
例如,你可能是指一个图表,显示番茄的消费模式是这样的:“由于莎莎和番茄酱,美国的番茄消费日益普及急剧上升,近年来(见图1)。”
将图形下方的标题。从另一个源图形或图表首先标记为“图十”,虽然你可以选择缩写“图”到“图”。你应该利用“图”或“图”。在标题。
数字应以它们出现的顺序进行编号;你的第一个图形或其他例证是“图1”,第二个“图2”,依此类推。
不要斜体字“图”或“图”或数字。

提供图的简要说明。这说明应该提供什么样的图中显示的清晰,简明的解释。
例如,“图1.崛起在美国番茄消费,1970-2000 ……“

列出作者姓名。需要注意的是在对比工作重点书目引文,你会与作者的名字开头:“约翰绿”,而不是“绿色,约翰。”如果作者是一个机构,如美国农业部,给机构的名称来代替。你需要“从图表”增加的话,如果该图是不是你的原始材料。
“图。 1.崛起番茄消费在美国,1970-2000。从图表约翰绿色……“

提供书籍或其他资源的称号。标题应以斜体格式。下面笔者名称的逗号后直接给出题目:“约翰·格林,在你的后院种菜,…”
您还斜体一个网站,像这样的题目:从国家览图…

包括这本书的位置,出版商和一年括号内。按照位置的模型:出版者,出版年):例如,(温泉:湖出版社,2002年)。右括号后,键入另一个逗号。
“图。 1.崛起番茄消费在美国,1970-2000。 (:湖出版社,2002年温泉)在你的后院“,从约翰·格林图,种植蔬菜。
如果图表在线来源来,按照援引在线来源的工作重点原则:给网站名称,出版者,出版,传媒,访问日期和分页的日期(如果有的话 – 如果不是,请键入“N。 PAG“)。
例如,如果你的图形来自美国农业部的网站来了,你的引文是这样的:“图。 1.崛起番茄消费在美国,1970-2000。从图表国家情况说明书。美国农业部。 1月1日到2015年网络。 2月4日到2015年ñ。 PAG“。

具有页号和资源格式完成。键入一段时间后的页面数,则表明这本书的格式(如“打印”,“电子书”,等等),现在你就大功告成了!您完整的引文应如下所示:
图。 1.崛起番茄消费在美国,1970-2000。从约翰·格林图,在你的花园,(温泉:湖出版社,2002年)种植蔬菜,43打印“。
如果你给在标题中引用的完整信息,你不需要还包括它在你的作品引用页面。

请参考您的文本的身影。你不应该包含您不要在文本中提及任何数字。总是由它的数量,而不是措辞指图,如“上图”或“下图。”
例如,你可以写:“作为如图1所示,西红柿消费量将在过去三十年中上升。”
将图形下方的引文。标签图形或图表“图十”斜体这一部分。
数字应以它们出现的顺序进行编号;你的第一图表或其它例证是图1,第二个是图2等
如果图表有一个现有的标题,给它“句首字母大写。”这意味着你只大写第一个单词在句子的第一个字母,以及一个冒号后的第一个字母。
提供图的简要说明。这说明,或传说,提供了有关图的内容的信息,请阅读器。确保你提供足够的信息,该标题描述的身影充分。在APA,这说明一个周期结束。
例如:图1:上升番茄消费,1970-2000。
用句首字母大写的描述了。
开始你的引文信息。在大多数情况下,你会开始的话此信息“转载[或改编] …从”这将信号发送到你的读者,该图是不是原来的工作,而是来自不同的来源。
如果你正在呈现图是你原来的工作,你收集到的所有数据,并编制自己的意思是,你并不需要这句话。
例如:图1:上升番茄消费,1970-2000。转载自…

列出卷的名称,则在括号中的页码。将用斜体字书名,并引用立即标题中间没有标点符号下面括号中的相关页面数。使用首字母大写的书籍和期刊名称,这意味着你利用在标题各大话。
例如:图1:上升番茄消费,1970-2000。从种植蔬菜在你的后院转载(第43页)

与作者,出版,地点和发行日期遵循。这些信息应该“先初始最后名称,日期,地点:出版商。”按照规定格式例如,“绿色J.,2002,温泉:湖出版商。”
例如:图1:上升番茄消费,1970-2000。从种植蔬菜在你的后院转载(第43页),由J.格林,2002年,温泉:湖出版社。
与图形版权信息end如果您计划发布的文件。例如,如果权利有关的图形是由美国番茄种植者协会举办,您需要联系该组织使用图形的权限。然后,在您的标题状态图为“版权2002年由美国番茄种植者协会。经许可后转载。”您的完整引用的话,会读:
图1.番茄消费量,1970至2000年上升。从种植蔬菜在你的后院转载(第43页),由J.格林,2002年,温泉:湖出版社。版权所有2002年由美国番茄种植者协会。转载许可。

How to Cite in a Paper
Sometimes you may find it useful to include a graph from another source when writing a research paper. This is acceptable if you give credit to the original source. To do so, you generally provide a citation under the graph. The form this citation takes depends upon the citation style used in your discipline. Modern Language Association (MLA) style is used by English scholars and many humanities disciplines, while authors working in psychology, the social sciences and hard sciences often use the standards of the American Psychological Association (APA). Other humanities specialists and social scientists, including historians, use the Chicago/Turabian style, and engineering-related fields utilize the standards of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Consult your instructor before writing a paper to determine which citation style is required.
Citing a Graph in MLA Style
Refer to the graph in your text. When referring to a graph in your writing, use either “figure X” or “fig.X” in parentheses. Use the Arabic numeral, and don’t capitalize either “figure” or the abbreviation “fig.”
For example, you might refer to a graph showing tomato consumption patterns this way: “Due to the increasing popularity of salsa and ketchup, tomato consumption in the US has risen sharply in recent years (see fig. 1).”
Place the caption underneath the graph. A graph or chart from another source is first labeled as “Figure X,” though you may opt to abbreviate “Figure” to “Fig.” You should capitalize “Figure” or “Fig.” in the caption.
Figures should be numbered in the order they appear; your first graph or other illustration is “Fig. 1,” your second “Fig. 2,” and so on.
Do not italicize the word “Figure” or “Fig.” or the numeral.

Provide a brief description of the graph. This description should provide a clear and concise explanation of what’s shown in the graph.
For example, “Fig. 1. Rise in tomato consumption in the US, 1970-2000…”

List the author’s name. Note that in contrast to MLA bibliographic citations, you will begin with the author’s first name: “John Green” instead of “Green, John.” If the author is an institution, such as USDA, give the institution’s name instead. You need to add the words “Graph from” if the graph is not your original material.
“Fig. 1. Rise in tomato consumption in the US, 1970-2000. Graph from John Green…”

Provide the title of the book or other resource. The title should be formatted in italic text. Give the title directly after the comma following the author’s name: “John Green, Growing Vegetables in Your Backyard,…”
You also italicize the title of a website, such as this: Graph from State Fact Sheets…

Include the book’s location, publisher, and year inside parentheses. Follow the model of location: publisher, year): for example, (Hot Springs: Lake Publishers, 2002). After the closing parenthesis, type another comma.
“Fig. 1. Rise in tomato consumption in the US, 1970-2000. Graph from John Green, Growing Vegetables in Your Backyard’, (Hot Springs: Lake Publishers, 2002).
If the graph came from an online source, follow the MLA guidelines for citing an online source: give the website name, publisher, date of publication, media, date of access, and pagination (if any — if not, type “n. pag.”).
For example, if your graph came from the USDA website, your citation would look like this: “Fig. 1. Rise in tomato consumption in the US, 1970-2000. Graph from State Fact Sheets. USDA. 1 Jan 2015. Web. 4 Feb. 2015. n. pag.”

Finish with a page number and the resource format. Type a period following the page number, then indicate this book’s format (i.e. “Print,” “eBook,” etc.) Now you’re done! Your complete citation should appear as follows:
Fig. 1. Rise in tomato consumption in the US, 1970-2000. Graph from John Green, Growing Vegetables in Your Garden, (Hot Springs: Lake Publishers, 2002), 43. Print.”
If you give the complete citation information in the caption, you do not need to also include it in your Works Cited page.

Refer to the figure in your text. You should not include any figure that you don’t mention in the text. Always refer to the figure by its number, not wording such as “the figure above” or “the figure below.”
For example, you could write: “As seen in Figure 1, tomato consumption has risen sharply in the past three decades.”
Place the citation underneath the graph. Label the graph or chart “Figure X.” Italicize this part.
Figures should be numbered in the order they appear; your first graph or other illustration is Figure 1, the second is Figure 2, etc.
If the graph has an existing title, give it in “sentence case.” This means you only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the sentence, as well as the first letter after a colon.
Provide a brief description of the graph. This description, or legend, provides your reader with information regarding the graph’s content. Make sure you give enough information that the caption describes the figure adequately. In APA, this description ends with a period.
For example: Figure 1. Rise in tomato consumption,1970-2000.
Use sentence case for the description too.
Begin your citation information. In most cases, you will begin this information with the words “Reprinted [or adapted] from…” This will signal to your reader that the graph is not original to your work, but rather comes from a different source.
If the graph you’re presenting is your original work, meaning you collected all the data and compiled it yourself, you don’t need this phrase.
For example: Figure 1. Rise in tomato consumption,1970-2000. Reprinted from…

List the volume’s name, then the page number in parentheses. Place book titles in italics, and cite the relevant page number in parentheses immediately following the title with no punctuation in between. Use title case for books and journal titles, meaning you capitalize all the major words in the title.
For example: Figure 1. Rise in tomato consumption,1970-2000. Reprinted from Growing Vegetables in Your Backyard (p. 43),

Follow with author, date of publication, location, and publisher. This information should follow the format of “by first initial(s) last name, date, location: publisher.” For example, “J. Green, 2002, Hot Springs: Lake Publishers.”
For example: Figure 1. Rise in tomato consumption,1970-2000. Reprinted from Growing Vegetables in Your Backyard (p. 43), by J. Green, 2002, Hot Springs: Lake Publishers.
End with copyright information for the graph if you plan to publish the paper. For example, if rights to the graph in question are held by the American Tomato Growers’ Association, you’ll need to contact this organization for permission to use the graph. Then, state in your caption that the graph is “Copyright 2002 by the American Tomato Growers’ Association. Reprinted with permission.” Your complete citation, then, will read:
Figure 1. Rise in tomato consumption, 1970-2000. Reprinted from Growing Vegetables in Your Backyard (p. 43), by J. Green, 2002, Hot Springs: Lake Publishers. Copyright 2002 by the American Tomato Growers’ Association. Reprinted with permission.

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