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Essay写作中的文献综述讲解

文献综述主要是介绍与主题有关的详细资料、动态、进展、展望以及对以上方面的评述。所以说文献综述的格式也相对多样,但总的来说,一般都包含以下四部分:即前言、主题、总结和参考文献。写文献综述时可按这四部分拟写提纲,再根据提纲进行撰写工作。那么具体如何写文献综述呢?

Essay写作中的文献综述讲解

有人可能会认为一个文献综述作为读一本书,然后给它一个竖起大拇指或大拇指朝下。不,并非如此。文献综述是一个主题各件文献,从系列书籍短篇作品像小册子的审查。有时,文学评论是一个更大的研究论文的一部分。其目的是为了防止重复工作,化解矛盾,并指出进一步研究的方式。

写作之前

明确你的教授的要求。一些教师可能会要求您做文献综述,并没有得到比这更具体。或者,也许他们没有和你正在玩植物大战僵尸。无论哪种方式,知道正是你的教授正在寻找的第一步,以获得该A.

你应该有多少的来源包括?他/她是否希望每个类型的特定号码?难道他们必须至少是半流?

在讨论你的主题,你只是概括或批评?一些评论要求的论文,有些人可能不。

如果你对你的源代码提供你的看法?

你需要提供背景信息,如定义或历史,在观众的理解,以帮助?

是否有一个网页或文字的要求?

缩小您的话题。获得窄,你可能可以同时还具有必要的资源量。研究出生顺序可能会导致您几十本书;同性兄弟姐妹就读出生顺序会让你的源更快,更易于管理的搜索。

获取当前。如果你是在人文,历史或社会科学写的评论,你可以买得起用时间不太关注(事实上,改变整个历史的观点可能是你的论文的一个方面)。但是,如果你正在写一部文学审查的科学,比如说,在治疗糖尿病,从5年前的信息可能已经过时。通过排序当前书目或文学评论领域得到你的纪律所期待的感觉。

查找焦点。不幸的是,你不只是搜集的来源和总结他们有什么可说的。你应该考虑什么样的主题和想法你的源代码连接在一起。想想这些书作为你的一群朋友在同一主题的所有争论。什么是他们都假设?他们如何同样,他们如何不同?

字里行间。你不一定要找色情内容。是否有缺少现场的一个方面?是你的源都规定一个具体的理论?你看到的趋势正在显露呢?这将帮助你组织你的论文极大,什么会给你的论文的目的归零英寸

构建你的论文。现在,你已经找到你的注意力,它的时间来构建一个主题句。你也许会想,文学评论没有论文语句。这两个部分是真假:他们有论文,但他们完全不同。你的论文语句不一定会主张的位置或意见;相反,它会认为有关材料的特殊视角。

例如,“当前[专题]在趋势是A,B和C,”或“X战警理论假设大多数的来源,从1985年”。说明像这样引出了几个问题,让您的评论更有趣和有意义的:趋势将如何改变未来?如果假设的理论是错的?

再次,这并不是新的信息。你是不是分析材料来了,上面有你自己的,新的视角。你只是像个电脑 – 注意模式,孔洞,并假设所有的源服用。

评估你的源代码。你可以有最好的意图和散文的形式,说服持怀疑态度坚定,但如果你的源代码是没有生命力的,仅此而已。 Finito。确保您的源上的多个层面的评估。

什么是作者的凭据?他们的论据是如何支持(叙述,统计,历史的发现,等等)?

是作者的角度来看偏见和客观?难道他们忽略任何数据,使他们看起来点强?

他们是如何有说服力的是谁?做任何他们分离开有点不理想?

难道他们的工作导致的主题更深入的了解?

构建你的文献

开始了坚实的介绍。正如一切,第一印象关系。您的介绍应该给您的评论的话题进行快速的想法,无论是主题或组织模式。

让他们知道他们在什么样的车程,沿读者有所帮助。如果您采用的论文声明,把它向你介绍段落的末尾。最后,你的读者应该是期待进入纸张的证据和批量。

组织机构。在这里你有最多的选择的部分。你有许多来源,并且由于他们都在相同的主题,他们可能具有共同的负荷。选择哪种方式似乎是最自然的你的具体重点。

按时间顺序安排。如果你正在处理与时代不同的看法,或随着时间的推移不断变化的趋势,按时间顺序组织可能最有意义。

按出版安排。这种组织方式以及票价如果每个刊物有不同的立场。如果在源之间的自然发展(激进保守,例如),这工作顺顺当当。

由趋势安排。如果你注意到在你的源模式,由他们认为可能是最明显的结构趋势排列它们。某些源可以一起,建议移动随着时间的推移,区域或其它可变一个图案。

主题安排。这在很大程度上取决于你的论文声明,你选择什么样的来源。如果你选择一个重点是更抽象(“殖民主义被描绘成邪恶”为例),各小节可以布置在采用跨把主题的不同方法。

得出一个明确的结论。最后一段需要包你的文件,重申了在介绍说,讨论从学习至今所绘制的内容。

你可以让你的结论暗示。凡可能讨论进行,如果别人把它捡起来你离开的地方?什么是今天的来源的模式和孔的后果是什么?

使用的证据。随意组合多个来源的到你自己的话来的理由。您正在使用由专业的工程备份自己的话。

但是,使用引号谨慎。文献回顾的调查性质不允许进行深入的讨论,或从text.Some短的人都很好,请务必详细的报价,但一切的一切,应该由你来写。

保持你自己的声音。不,你不提出,从你自己的心灵的奇迹兴起的信息,但你还是应该开始和结束用你自己的话每个段落。你的声音应该保持前沿和中心。

当转述这是不是你自己的来源,一定要代表作者的信息或意见准确,用自己的话。然后,它与您的评论的上下文。

有些教授可能需要您评估的来源和总结这件加入该领域的最大的贡献。如果你是热衷于此,决定你采取引进和字符串它在你的论文。

修改你的工作

检查指导。有些教授喜欢他们的论文一定的方式。请确保你不仅满足内容准则,但符合格式指引,太。

你是否需要教练APA格式?应该怎样你的利润有多大?页眉,页脚,脚注和页码?他们怎么想你的名字,标题和副标题?他们怎么想你的作品引用页面?

检查连贯流动和转换。这是最好坚持简洁明了写作,它并不总是容易明确是第一次尝试。回到了你的工作和改述所剩下的含糊不清或罗嗦。

一切说像白昼一样,它流动起来?你们好转型不仅一段段,但是从判决判?要确保你的证据线与支持,您的来源安排在逻辑上流动。

消除无用的行话或俚语。这一努力过程中,您可能已经长大了一个全新的词汇,但是你的教授还没有。编写能够被大众读报纸。不要让过于深奥。

校对你的工作。你有困难的部分了。现在,所有你需要做的就是去在它的拼写,语法和标点符号。以写作和校对的休息 – 你的大脑可能有点饱和。跳回到它当您准备好。

最好是让别人去了你的工作了。您可能已经读过很多次你再也不能看到你陷入葡萄牙心不在焉。一组不同的眼睛可以找到您可能没有看到错误,请你们没有意识到是没有得到解决的问题,或寻求对foggier点澄清。

How to Do a Literature Review

Some people might think of a literature review as reading a book and then giving it a thumbs up or thumbs down. Nope, not so. A literature review is a review of various pieces of literature on one topic, ranging from series of books to shorter pieces like pamphlets. Sometimes, the literary review is a part of a larger research paper. Its purpose is to prevent duplication of efforts, resolve conflicts, and point the way for further research.

Before Writing

Clarify your professor’s requirements. Some instructors may ask you to do a literature review and not get more specific than that. Or, maybe they did and you were playing Plants vs Zombies. Either way, knowing precisely what your professor is looking for is the first step to getting that A.

How many sources should you include? Does he/she want a specific number of each type? Do they have to be at least semi-current?

In discussing your themes, are you just summarizing or critiquing? Some reviews require a thesis, some may not.

Should you offer your opinion on your sources?

Do you need to provide background information, such as definitions or histories, to aid in your audience’s understanding?

Is there a page or word requirement?

Narrow your topic. Get as narrow as you possibly can while still having the amount of sources necessary. Studying birth order may lead you to dozens of books; studying birth order of same-sex siblings will make your search for sources much quicker and more manageable.

Get current. If you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, you can afford to be less concerned with timing (in fact, changing opinions throughout history may be an aspect of your paper). But if you are writing a literary review for the sciences, say, on treating diabetes, information from 5 years ago could already be obsolete. Sort through current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.

Find a focus. Unfortunately, you are not just gathering sources and summing up what they have to say. You should be considering what themes and ideas connect your sources together. Think of these books as your group of friends all arguing on the same topic. What are they all assuming? How are they the same and how are they different?

Read between the lines. You’re not necessarily looking for explicit content. Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? Are your sources all prescribing to one specific theory? Do you see trends being revealed? This will help you structure your paper immensely, zeroing in on what will give your paper purpose.

Construct your thesis. Now that you’ve found your focus, it’s time to construct a thesis statement. You may be thinking that literature reviews don’t have thesis statements. That’s both partly true and false: They have theses, but they’re quite different. Your thesis statement will not necessarily argue for a position or an opinion; rather, it will argue for a particular perspective on the material.

For example, “Current trends in [topic] are A, B, and C,” or “The X Theory is assumed by most sources from 1985 on.” Stating something like this begs a few questions, making your review more interesting and meaningful: How will trends change in the future? What if the assumed theories are wrong?

Again, this is not new information. You are not analyzing the material and coming up with your own, fresh perspective on it. You are simply acting like a computer–noting patterns, holes, and assumptions all your sources are taking.

Assess your sources. You can have the best of intentions and a form of prose that convinces the staunchest of skeptics, but if your sources aren’t viable, that’s it. Finito. Make sure your sources are evaluated on a number of levels.

What are the author’s credentials? How are their arguments supported (narratives, statistics, historical findings, etc.)?

Is the author’s perspective unbiased and objective? Are they ignoring any data to make their points seem stronger?

How persuasive are they? Do any of their points leave a bit to be desired?

Does their work lead to a greater understanding of the subject?

Constructing Your Paper

Start with a solid introduction. As with everything, first impressions matter. Your intro should give a quick idea of the topic of your review, be it thematically or by organizational pattern.

Help the reader along by letting them know what kind of ride they’re in for. If you are employing a thesis statement, place it toward the end of your introductory paragraph. At the end, your reader should be anticipating getting into the evidence and bulk of your paper.

Organize the body. Here is the part where you have the most options. You have a number of sources and, since they’re all on the same topic, they probably have loads in common. Choose whichever way seems the most natural to you for your specific focus.

Arrange it chronologically. If you are dealing with varying opinions by era or changing trends over time, chronological organization may make the most sense.

Arrange it by publication. This organizational method fares well if each publication has a different stance. If there is a natural progression (radical to conservative, for example) between the sources, this works swimmingly.

Arrange it by trend. If you are noticing patterns in your sources, arranging them by the trends they suggest may be the most obvious structure. Certain sources may, together, suggest one pattern that shifts over time, region, or other variable.

Arrange it thematically. This highly depends on your thesis statement and what sources you have chosen. If you are choosing a focus that is more abstract (“Colonialism is depicted as evil,” for example), the subsections may be arranged on the different methods employed to put the theme across.

Come to a clear conclusion. The closing paragraph needs to wrap up your paper, reiterate what was said in the intro, and discuss what you’ve drawn so far from your studies.

You may make your conclusion suggestive. Where might the discussion proceed if someone else picked it up where you left off? What are the consequences of the patterns and holes in toda