下面Meeloun小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British private education，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了英国的私立教育。英国的基础教育阶段以公立学校为主，私立中小学所占比例较小，但其发展历史较长，形成了一批具有良好教育传统和较大规模的私立教育机构。英国学前、中小学、高等教育阶段的私立教育机构各有特点，但中小学和高等教育阶段的私立教育在整个教育体系中的占比不大。
Early years or pre-school in England is for children between the ages of 0 and 5. All children aged three to four in England now get 570 hours of free pre-school a year. Some 2-year-olds from low-income families or with special educational needs also receive some free early education.
There are various kinds of early education institutions in the UK, including chlidminders, domestic premises providers, non-domestic premises providers, early education institutions maintained by local governments, Independent schools with nursery provision.
In the five categories of early education providers or institutions, except the early education institutions funded by local governments, all other institutions or individual services need to be purchased by parents, but the state will provide subsidies according to the number of children.
In 2013, there were 55,900 child-care workers registered with the state supervision office, 17,900 full-time small-group early education institutions, 7,100 part-time early education institutions and only 450 full-time children’s centers. The number of after-school nursing institutions reached 13,400, 12,800 before classes, and 7,200 during holidays. School-based early education institutions include 400 pre-schools, 7,600 primary schools with all dependent pre-schools and pre-schools, and 8,800 primary schools with all pre-schools but no pre-schools.
In the UK, the basic education stage is dominated by public schools, with private primary and secondary schools accounting for a small proportion. However, it has a long history and has formed a group of private education institutions with good educational tradition and large scale, such as Eton College and Harrow Schoo. These are considered the world’s top private schools.
According to the department for education, as of October 21, 2014, there were 2,377 private primary and secondary schools in England, accounting for about 10% of the total number of 24,354 schools in England. In addition, about 60 new private schools are opened in England each year. As of January 2014, there were about 574,800 private primary and secondary students in England, accounting for about 7% of England’s 8.3 million primary and secondary students. There are a few private schools in Scotland and even fewer in Northern Ireland.
In England and wales, private schools are called “independent schools”. British private schools are typical of the characteristics of privilege and elite education. The public school, the symbol of British private schools, is an obvious example. Strict selection and examination of new students, academic courses, high-level teachers and teaching are the premise and guarantee of its elite education function. But British private schools, with their high fees, are seen as “posh” schools, or stepping stones into them. According to the British broadcasting corporation reported in August 2014, the proportion of primary and middle school students attend private school in England, though only 7%, but 50% of the British parliament’s upper house members, 36% of the cabinet, parliament members of the house of Commons, 33% and 71% of senior judges, 62% of senior officers, 55% of senior civil servants, 53% of senior diplomats, 45% of public institutions, chairman of the 44% of the Sunday times rich list is a list of private school was born.
After the war, private primary and secondary schools with the nature of church, such as Catholic schools and Anglican schools, were incorporated into the public education system and became Voluntary Aid school or Assisted school. The schools are still owned by the church and run by a semi-independent body, but are so tightly controlled by the government that they are no longer strictly private.
In the 1980s, in order to change the uneven development and declining quality of British public schools, the conservative government under thatcher carried out a series of reforms to improve education standards and introduced the market into education. The education reform act of 1988 decided to establish urban technical colleges, which was an attempt to implement school autonomy. It is independent of local education authorities. About 80% of its school funding comes from the central education department. Another 20% is sponsored by local enterprises, thus giving enterprises the opportunity to participate in school education. In 2000, the former education and employment secretary, David Blunkett, announced the City Academies Programme as a complementary Programme for specialist schools to improve the quality of teaching in failing schools and improve academic achievement in such schools. City charter schools receive government funding but are run by private or voluntary groups. City Academies was dropped in 2008, which marked the beginning of charter schools in non-urban areas.
In July 2010, the British government issued the Academy Act 2010, which still defined charter schools as public schools. However, charter schools have a high degree of autonomy in the process of running schools. The funds are not allocated by local education departments, but directly funded by the ministry of education. The government actively advocates the establishment of free schools. The only difference between free schools and charter schools is that the latter is mainly transformed from existing schools, while the former can provide parents and teachers dissatisfied with the local education situation with the opportunity to apply for opening new schools. In other words, if parents and teacher groups have a need, they can set up free schools through a certain application process. In fact, not only parents’ and teachers’ groups can apply to open new schools, but also universities, charities, businesses and voluntary groups can apply to open free schools. Free school is a special public school in nature, and the state’s financial allocation is still one of its most important financial sources. As of June 2014, the department for education had approved the admission of 331 free schools.
There are 155 universities with independent degree awarding qualifications in the UK, of which six private institutions have the right to grant degrees, namely the University of Buckingham established in 1976, Regent’s University and University of Law approved in 2012, and BPP University, Ashridge Business School and ifs University College approved in 2013.
There are also 650 Listed Bodies in the UK that offer complete degree courses but are not individually degree-granting. They can partner with degree-granting universities to enable their students to obtain university degrees. There are also higher education institutions in the UK that do not offer full degree programmes.
In recent years, the continuous rise of private higher education institutions has also become a new feature of British independent education. Private universities, which rely entirely on tuition fees and are not funded by the government’s higher education funding council, are seen as a new way to develop higher education in Britain amid funding cuts. This approach can increase the number of college students without the need for taxpayer funding. The department for business, innovation and skills, which has introduced policies to encourage more competition in higher education, is considering changes to the law and easing restrictions to promote more private universities. More and more companies are also join this industry, such as the famous British press, and Pearson education institutions in February 2013 announced the opening of Pearson College, through the way of cooperation with public universities set up 2 years or 3 years is given priority to with practical skills and ability of business courses, working with public university diplomas. Other big private groups include Britain’s Cambridge Education Group and INTO, Australia’s Navitas and Study Group, and America’s Kaplan and Apollo Group. In addition, about 100 overseas private higher education institutions have branches in the UK.
According to the “status of private higher education in the UK” report released by the department of business, innovation and skills in June 2013, there are at least 674 private higher education institutions in the UK, with a total number of about 160,000 students, while the total number of undergraduate and above students in the 2013-2014 academic year reached 2.34 million.
Private pre-schools, independent schools and private universities in the UK are generally registered as charities. Although this gets less financial support, but can get a lot of preferential tax.
The British government determines the amount of financial support based on the number of students in private pre-school institutions. Most private-school preschools operate mainly by charging parents.
Private primary and secondary schools bear the major investment and operating costs by themselves, but if the local government arranges private schools to accept students, especially students with special needs in the community, the schools can receive government subsidies. According to the statistics report on special education needs of students in England released by the department for education on September 4, 2014, in 2014, the proportion of special education needs students admitted by independent schools was 5.1%, while that of non-public special education schools was 1.7%. The Independent School Council, which has 1,257 private School members, reported in its 2013-2014 academic year that its members received 117m from early education grants, local government grants, government music dance talent grants and other sources. According to a 2014 report by Oxford Economics, a consultancy, independent school board members contribute 9.5bn to the Gross Value Added of the UK economy, equivalent to the size of the city of Liverpool, and pay 3.6bn in taxes.
The charter schools act of 2010, passed by the British government, allowed private schools to become charter schools on the condition that they provided free education. At the same time, the government strongly promotes the free schools program to support businesses, private, civil society and private schools to open free schools. Charter schools come from a wide range of sources, including individuals, enterprises, social groups, religious groups and universities.
Charter school programs and free schools programs are increasingly breaking down the lines between private and public education. Many independent schools are already sponsoring or co-sponsoring public colleges, sharing expertise with public colleges and promoting public schools. By early 2014, 16 private schools had been incorporated into the public education system through free schools and charter programs, according to the department of education. More than 100 independent schools are expected to be added to the public education system over the next decade, the charter schools programme’s founder, Lord Andrew adonis, a former secretary of state for schools at the department for education, said in January 2014.
Private higher education institutions mainly rely on tuition fees to maintain their operations. The British government supports private higher education institutions mainly by providing tuition loans to students through the Student Loan Company under the government. In addition, private institutions of higher education also apply for research funding, but their research capacity is generally weak, so they receive less funding. The following part mainly analyzes the support of tuition loan to private higher education institutions.
After the government raised the cap on tuition fees to 9,000 in 2012, schools received less money directly from the government and more revenue from fees charged to students. Most students will be able to apply for a loan from the government when they enter the university. The tuition loan will be paid directly into the university’s account and will be repaid on a monthly basis after they graduate with an annual income of 21,000. Not only are university students from charities such as regent university and buckingham university eligible for student loans, but undergraduate students from for-profit higher education institutions such as BPP university are also eligible for student loans. In the 2012-13 academic year, private higher education institutions received 21,500 more student loans for tuition fees than in the 2010-11 academic year, according to a report by the union of university vice-chancellors.